Verkhoshansky Theory

Post discussions here.

would be interested more from adarqui relating to his post that included

When I’m out of my GPP phase, the most effective form of stim i’ve ever used comes from Verkhoshansky’s Maximal Strength Effort Methods; High intensity squatting with rest between reps (2-3x2-4 90+%). Nothing comes close to providing as much potentiation as this simple method, IMO. I’ve used it for same-day stim, next-day stim (1-3 days), in season strength maintenance with very low fatigue, and a quick peaking method consisting of high frequency MSEM (multiple sessions in a row) + very small deload.

Adarqui made a huge post containing many of his notes about Verkhoshansky on his forum:


Lotta good info in there. He’s got long and detailed post about MSEM, too.

Verkhoshansky’s Sport Training Methods

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1.Various Methods
Resistance Exercises: Emphasis (Intensity,Sets,Reps,Rest)
A list of resistance training methods & SUPERMETHODS
Maximal Strength Effort Method
Series Repetitive Method Variant 1: Maximal Strength Development + Hypertrophy
Series Repetitive Method Variant 2: Maximal Strength Development + Minimal Hypertrophy
Series Repetitive Method Variant 3: Developing Speed Force For Cyclical & Noncyclical Sports
Series Repetitive Method Variant 4: Speed & Frequency Improvement Of Unloaded Movements
Series Repetitive Method Variant 5: Development of Reaction Speed of Form & Muscle Coordination
Series Repetitive Method Variant 6: Strength Endurance Development During High Intensity Performance
Complex Method Variant 1: Development of Explosive Muscular Force
Complex Method Variant 2: Speed Improvement
Complex Method Variant 3: Improve Speed & Frequency of Unloaded Movements
Interval Method Variant 1: Developing Anaerobic + Alactic Energy Systems
Interval Method Variant 1: Developing Anaerobic + Alactic Energy Systems
STIM METHOD: Detailed examples

  1. Various Notes
    Methods Of SPP
    Innate Potential of the Human Organism
    Shock Method
    Stimulatory Method
    Adaptive Process During Microcycle
    Quickness & Velocity
    Strength Requirements By Sport
    Developing Special Strength In Speed Athletes
    Resistance Exercise as a Specialized Means

  2. Verkhoshansky Forum Posts
    Shock Method Volume & Low Intensity Depth Jumps
    Base Principle of Concentrate Blocks
    Improving 20m Sprint Speed
    How To Perform Depth Jumps
    General Model of an Olympic Lifter Block System
    Peaking Too Early
    Training Losing Its Effectiveness
    Recovery Workouts
    How To Perform A STIM Complex
    SUPERMETHODS & 200-400m Sprinting
    Block System For 800-1500m Athletes
    Kettlebells and Jump Squats
    Hurdle Jumps and Jump Squats
    Quads & Vert, Shock Method Results
    Strength Qualities
    Squat Jump With Russian Kettlebell
    Some Shock Guidelines
    Functional Training
    The Half Squat
    Depth Jump Progression
    High Jumper Response
    Bilateral Deficit
    Rest Duration Between Depth Jumps
    About Kelly Bagget’s Stance On SPP
    Developing Starting Strength
    Depth Drop Height
    Calf Training
    the Stim Method
    Extended Shock Phase
    Some Basketball Info
    Depth Jumps & Shock Prior To The Competition Phase
    Basketball Physical Preparation
    Serial Repetition Method & Max Speed
    Glute Ham Raise
    Depth Jump Box Height
    Heavy Athletes & Shock
    Sprinter Block System
    Increasing 100m Sprint Speed
    Relationship Between Squat & Vertical Jump
    Uphill & Downhill Running


weight in % of max num of rep num of set rest between set emphasis of training
70-100% 1-6 4-8 3′-4′ maximal strength; explosive str w/ large external resistance
80-90 5-10 4-8 3′-4′ explosive strength w/ moderate external resistance
70-80 8-12 3-6 1′-2′ max strength with an increase in muscle mass
50-70 10-15 4-6 3′-4′ speed of movements & explosive strength w/ small external resistance
50-70 20-40 2-4 45″-90″ local muscular endurance w/ large external resistance
30-60 30-50 2-4 45″-90″ local musc end with small ext resistance
20-30 15-20 3-5 3′-4′ quickness and frequency of non-loaded movements


  • develops maximal and explosive strength, without significant increases in muscle size
  • adaptations in central mechanisms regulating muscular tension
  • improves anaerobic energy systems- optimizes speed of muscle relaxation
  • improves athlete’s ability to generate powerful concentrated muscular force
  • 2-3 reps @ 90-95% 1RM (with obligatory muscle relaxation between reps)
  • 2-4 sets with 4-6 minutes rest periods
  • once every 2-3 weeks during off season… once every 1-2 weeks during pre-season
  • after warmup, complete lifts with 90, 95, and 100% 1RM
  • then, 95, 100, and higher
  • between each lift, rest 4-5 minutes depending on how the athlete feels

muscle relaxation exercises for MSEM ^^^:

  • conducted between individual repetitions of a single set.
  • ie, back squat: athlete performs one squat rep, racks the bar, performs relaxation movements, then unrack the barbell and perform another rep… this is continued for all reps of the set.


  • creates a load slightly lower than the previous maximum force level
    [b]- VARIANT 1:
  • resistance = 75-80% 1RM (10-12 reps)
  • slow motions until volutional fatigue
  • 2 sets with 2 minute rest for 2-3 muscle groups
  • if working only one muscle group: 3 sets can be used
  • NOT effective in improving speed
  • useful in the beginning of off season to prepare muscles for intense workloads
    [b]- VARIANT 2
  • complete 3 sets: 80% 1RM (8-10 reps), 90% 1RM (5 reps), 93% 1RM (3 reps)
  • 2-4 minutes rest
  • during one training session, perform 2-3 series with 6-8 minutes rest in between
  • as strength increases of an athlete, increase resistance by 5%
    [b]- VARIANT 3
  • load limited to 30-70% 1RM, depending on resistance that must be overcome during sport
  • 6-8 reps with maximum velocity, muscle being relaxed after each repetition
  • 2-3 sets in each series with 4-6 minute rest interval
  • 2-3 series in each training session, with 8-10 minutes rest in between series
    [b]- VARIANT 4
  • resistance 15-20% 1RM
  • execute movement with maximal speed
  • if emphasizing speed, then frequency of movement should be moderate, with muscle relaxing between reps
  • if emphasizing frequency of movement, then exercise should be performed at maximal tempo
  • series consists of 2-3 sets, 8-10 reps
  • 2-4 minutes rest in ^^ speed scenario
  • 4-6 minutes rest in ^^ frequency scenario
    [b]- VARIANT 5
  • exercises should copy movements of competition
  • resistance = 30-40% 1RM
  • emphasis on QUICK START OF MOVEMENT on the specific competition signal (visual, tactile, etc)
  • training directed toward imprvoement of speed of muscle recruitment and coordination
  • series includes 4-6 reps with long pauses
  • 4-6 minute rest intervals
  • some cases, exercises performed via explosive isometric muscular tension
    [b]- VARIANT 6
  • resistance is 90-93% 1RM
  • exercise performed at slow motion
  • 3 sets of 2-3 reps
  • 4-6 minutes rest
  • AFTER that resistance should be decreased by 5%, and another 2-3 sets should be performed


  • multi directional development in one training session
  • positive improvement of the previous workout used to increase effectiveness of the next work
    [b]- VARIANT 1
  • two sets of 2-3 slow reps using 90% 1RM
  • then 3 sets of 6-8 reps with 30% 1RM (MAXIMUM EFFORT, RELAXING MUSCLES BETWEEN REPS)
  • rest interval between sets: 3-4 minutes between sets
  • rest interval after changing the weight for lighter sets is 4-6 minutes
  • perform 2-3 series in one training session with 8-10 minute rest period
    [b]- VARIANT 2
  • one series includes: 2-3 sets of 3-4 reps with resistance of 50-75% 1RM, and 2-3 sets of 6-8 reps with a resistance of 30% 1RM performed with maximum speed and muscular relaxation between reps
  • rest intervals between sets: 4-6 minutes
  • rest intervals between series: 8-10 minutes
    [b]- VARIANT 3
  • perform 2 sets of 3-4 reps in moderate tempo with 50-70% 1RM, followed by 2-3 sets of 8-10 reps using 15% 1RM (increasing speed with moderate tempo and relaxation between sets, and increasing frequency with maximum tempo respectively).


  • used for development of local muscular endurance by improving energy storage and its efficacy during cyclical work
  • improves oxidative abilities
  • improves anaerobic energy supply including CP & lactic acid systems… speeds up aerobic glycolysis
  • work at max intensity for 10 seconds with frequency of 1 movement per second
  • resistance is limited to 30-40% 1RM (movement should not slow down)
  • rest periods are 30 seconds initially, but, with athlete’s improvement, can lower to 10 seconds
  • start by performing 5-6 reps, gradually increase to 8-10 reps
  • each workout should consist of 2-3 series with 8-10 minutes rest between each series
  • work for 30 seconds with moderate intensity
  • have 60 second rest interval
  • then work again for 30 sec…
  • resistance = 30-40% 1RM
  • tempo: one movement per second
  • 6-8 reps in each series
  • in each training session, 2-3 series with 10-12 minutes rest in between
  • progressive overload: achieved by increasing resistance while preserving the same tempo of movement or increasing tempo of movement with constant resistance


  • two successive muscle activities
  • first: (tonic), carried out slowly with major resistance & a limited number of reps
  • second: (developing), cconducted with an extremely concentrated, explosive effort with smaller weights (30-40% from max) and significantly more (optimum) repetitions.
  • result: the preliminary (tonic) activity essentially increases the power output of the subsequent, because of its tonic effect on the – CNS, which is in effect the main training effect of the stimulation method.


  • 2-3 complexes of each
  • rec = recovery

back squat @ 70-80% for 2×5-6 reps (rec 2-4 min)……. rest 4-6 minutes…… single leg hops 2-3×6-8 (rec 4-6 min)…… rest 6-8 minutes…
back squat @ 80-85% for 2×2-3 reps (rec 3-4 min)…….rest 3-5 min…… weighted jumps 2-3×4-6 (rec 3-4min) ….rest 6-8 minutes
back squat @ 90% for 2×2-3 (rec 3-4 min)…… rest 4-6 min……. jump squats @ 30% for 3×6-8 (rec 3-4 min)…… rest 8-10 minutes
back squat @ 90-95% for 2×2 (rec 2-4 min)…… rest 4-6 min… depth jump (h = 0.75m) 2×6-8 (rec 4-6 min)…. rest 8-10 min

Variant of stimulation method for legs:

  • vertical squat jump with a weight held between legs (16,24,or 32 kg). used as tonic work.
  • two sets of 6-8 jumps with rest 3-4 minutes conducted. Then after rest of 3-4 minutes, the second DEVELOPING exercise is executed for 6 or 8 reps multiple jumps from one
  • leg to the other with max effort.
  • the work consists of two sets of 5-6 reps of exercise with rest between 3-4 minutes. this series is repeated 2-3 times with the – rest of 5-8 minutes.

Variant of stimulation method for sprinters:

  • sprinters increase speed of the initial acceleration and the running speed after intense jumping exercises. three hops from one leg to the other over 60-80m with resting pauses of 1.5-2 minutes between bouts, increases speed by 2-3% in the main part of the training session of middle distance runners. the velocity of short distance runs increases, and maintained over a series of runs.

stimulation method defined by:

  1. first (tonic) exercise has no principal value. key muscle groups must be activated and that they work hard. as the second (developing exercise), its motor structure should approximate the competition exercise as mushc as possible and be conducted with extreme explosive effort.

  2. the effectiveness of the stimulation method depends on following closely the work regimnt, number of reps, rest intervals, amount of weight, etc. To develop explosive strength & reactive ability it is necessary to follow the guidelines,w while at the same time, seeking the optimum individual variant of the regiment in each concrete case.

  3. BETWEEN SETS IT IS NECESSARY TO WORK ON FLEXIBILITY AND RELAXATION OF MUSCLES. do light jumping, jogging, relaxation, flexibility.

  4. During training, it is necessary to increase the intensity of the tonic work, not by increasing volume, but the amount of weight. Not necessary to change the amount of work (reps/sets/series) weight of load or intervals of rest for the developing exercise.

  5. don’t do at end of training or in fatigued state. effective only when fresh.

  6. can last 40-60 minutes, should be first training session of the day (in case there are 2-3 etc per day). training sessions to follow should be no less than four hours.

  7. stim method is mainly intended for the purpose of stimulating the ability of the CNS to generate a stream of impulses to the motor periphery. it has a strong training effect and SHOULD NOT be applied frequently. During the training stage where there is concentration on special strength training, it should be utilized no more than one-two times per one week.

“nature has provided man with the possiblity to enhance his abilities in extreme situations, and we need to utilize it in the training of the high class athlete.”

From Verkhoshansky himself, forum post:
Dear Jamie Douse,

you complete all sets of the tonic exercises and after you complete all sets of the development exercises.

This is the variant of the complex method, in which:

  •    the first work (tonic), consist in 2 sets of 6-8 jumps with  Russian Kettlebell held between the legs
  •    the second work (developing), consist in 2 sets of 5-6 repetitions of multiple long jumps  (6 or 8 jumping passes from leg to leg).

After you have completed two sets of tonic work with Russian Kettlebell (2 set of 6-8 jumps with 3-4 minutes of rest between every set) you should have a rest of 3-4 minutes.

After this you pass to the developing work:

  1.  execute the multiple long jump (6 or 8 steps from leg to leg) with the maximum effort;
  2.  return to the starting place and immediately repeat the exercise 1);
  3.  return to start place and repeat the exercise 1) again for 4-5 times. This is one set of 5-6 repetitions of exercise.
  4.  After, you should have a rest interval of 4-6 minutes, than you repeat the same set of 5-6 repetitions of the same exercise: i.e. the multiple long jump with (6 or 8 steps from leg to leg) with the maximum effort.

Yuri Verkhoshansky


  • 4×10 DJ’s from 30″ through 42″, only for advanced athletes who have done progressive preparation to safely utilize depth jumps. Box height depends on goals and preparedness. 30″ Box is generally used for reactive abilities + explosive strength while 42″ box would be used by more advanced athletes to improve max/explosive strength.
  • No more than 400 DJ’s in 3 weeks.

Check the posts:
Shock Method Volume & Low Intensity Depth Jumps

[b]How To Perform Depth Jumps

Depth Jump Progression

Rest Duration Between Depth Jumps

Depth Drop Height

Depth Jumps & Shock Prior To The Competition Phase

Depth Jump Box Height[/b]


process of attaining sports mastery (PASM)[/b]
3 keys:

  1. to achieve PASM -> steady rise in specific motor potential of the body and the improvement of a sportsman’s skill to utilize it effectively in training and competitions. the rise of specific motor potential is accomplished with the means and methods of SPP

  2. the increase in key motor function in PASM slows and its stagnation in elite athletes requires that the intensity of training be increased.

** become main component of the training system instead of an addition to it

  1. motor potential over many years must increase, yearly SPP

speed of movement and locomotion
local muscular endurance
co-ordination of movement and efforts
quickness of a motor reaction
velocity and frequency of movements without weight
the ability of muscles to relax

means and methods of strength training for specific sports should conform to the required motor qualities in terms of:

  • the structure of muscles involved in the work, amplitude and direction of movement
  • the speed with which the working muscles develop maximum force

    methods of SPP

methods with which specialized training influences are organized such that the biomechanical, physiological, and bio energetic parameters of competition activity are closely approximated.

“the supermethods have been developed… as an alternative to doping and anabolics”

super methods based on “principle of forced (compulsory) intensification of the regime of working”

principle of forced intensifcation of the working regime in training conditions

the greater the volitional effort, the more force is produced in an isometric muscle contraction.
the more forceful the athlete concentrates on lifting a barbell, the greater its speed of movement.
the effect of any traditional training method is determined by the limit (1RM) of the athlete’s strength of will

if excitability of the CNS is increased beforehand, elite athlete can lift a barbell with a weiht he was unable to lift without this excitation

********** “a sportsman instantaneously produces an effort of such power he could not exhibit under ordinary training conditions in a take – off after a depth jump.”

“so when an athlete lifts a barbell or executes an ordinary vertical jump, the effort is entirely volutional. everything depends on his concentrated effort and the mobilization of motor potential. If the sportsman conducts a vertical take-off after a depth jump with the aim of flying up as high as possible or runs down a slight incline at maximum speed, these conditions force his central nervous and physiological systems to exceed the ordinary boundaries. The creation of such conditions in training process is the force intensification of the work regime which becomes a potent training stimulus.”

“apparently, under these conditions the body mobilizes any innate mechanisms designed by natrue to be available for these and even more complex, extreme situations.”

innate potential of the human organism:

  • reserves employed in reactive movements (15%)
  • physiological reserves employed under conditions of elevated motor activity (20%)
  • special reserves mobilized only under conditions of muscle performance of great intensity or long duration (35%)
    ^^ inhibited by the CNS
  • innate defended reserves mobilized only in extreme, life threatening situations (30%)
    ^^ inhibited by the CNS

these reserves not accessible regardless of the intensity of the volutional effort without special long term training.

the cns mechanism controlling the mobilization of the contractile function of muscles of gymnists gradually is perfected during many years of training – making it possible to realize the motor potential fully (including the special reserves) in a volitional effort).

the application of special reserves with traditional methods of SPP, through strength of will impulse, becomes increasingly difficult and involves major time & energy by the athlete.

the subsequent increase of the special work capacity level requires increases in the force (intensity) of the training.

“consequently it is necessary to create the training conditions that will force the body to mobilize the hidden (concealed) functional reserves and to form central nervous system mechanisms for their application, ie to make them accessible for mobilization from strength of will impulse”


  • intended for the development of explosive strength of muscles and the reactive ability of the neuro muscular apparatus

” the essence of the mthod consists of a stimulatory muscle stretch created by the kinetic energy accumulated from the athlete’s falling body from a specific, strictly prescribed height. The resistance of the falling body (the shell) is stopped over a short movement path. This produces a sharp muscle-tension which creates instantaneously, a resilient potential of muscle-tension and stimulates a high-intensity neuro-impulse on motorneurons. This in turn promotes a faster switching of the muscles from eccentric to concentric work and a more powerful contraction. ”

“the stimulus comes not from a weight, but from a free falling body (shell)”

“when free weights are employed, the magnitude of the muscles working tension is a function primarily of volitional effort. However in the shock method, the activation of the working muscles is forced. The external factor of the weight example only assists the force produced by the muscles; on the other hand, with shock regime the external factor (kinetic energy) forces the body to mobilize the innate motor resources.”

simplest and most appropriate use of shock for developing explosive strength & reactive ability of the extensor muscles of the legs is the depth jump from a strictly prescribed by verk:

“the experimental group utilized depth jumps (for 3 weeks; 3x/week; 40 jumps each training session). The back squat and traditional jumping exercises were eliminated from the program. The changes in the level of explosive force and reactive abilit of the neuromuscular apparatus were measured weekly on a special device.

the improvement of all recorded characteristics [speed of movement, maximum effort, maximum strength of muscle, power of effort] in the experiment group exceeded significantly the same parameters of the control group. The biggest increase in the speed of the loaded movement (V) and power (N) was found to be in beginning segment of the working amplitude of the control movement”

shock method effective for starting strength and increase in power of muscles working in ballistic movements.

  • enhances effectiveness of the central regulation of the production of power (especially, through the mobilzation of a greater number of motor units, a higher frequency impulses and an enhanced synchronization of the motor neurons.

  • increases the stiffness of muscles (stiffness of the sequential resilient component), this plays an important role for a fast onset of muscle contractions when they are called upon to switch rapidly from eccentric to concentric work; especially when overcoming a large external resistance, for example, in weightlifting exercises and athletic jumps.

conclusions on shock:

  1. kinetic energy of the falling body which creates the intense stimulation of the muscles in an amortization phase, does not slow the speed of their subsequent contraction (which happens with weights). In fact, quite the contrary, this kinetic energy augments the speed of the resulting contraction.

  2. the mobilization of muscles stimulated in the shock regime is “forced”. In weightlifting exercises the magnitude of the mobilization of muscles’ motor potential is dependent chiefly on volitional effort. However, in the shock method the CNS and motor apparatus are forced to react to the extreme conditions created in the amortization phase of the impact such that subsequent magnitude of muscular contraction is simply outside the realm of volitional effort.

  3. has a profound training effect, which is significantly greater than any other methods of “natural” stimulation of muscles. Therefore, it is imperative not to exceed the optimum dosage and duration of use in training.

  4. because of its profound effect on the CNS, the muscles, ligaments, the shock regime should be utilized in the training of highly skilled sportsman following a period of preliminary speed-strength training.

  5. don’t execute depth jumps with a barbell on shoulders (recommended by bompa). First and foremost this distorts the idea of the shock method and secondly, there is a significant risk of injury to the loco-motor apparatus and the spinal column. A functional lack of knowledge of biomechanics, muscle physiology, as well as an inadequate grasp of the concept of the shock method could condone such an exercise protocol.

shock should occupy a special place in the system of special physical training and be utilized at specific times of the year.

should not be included in training of children and low-level athletes. poses danger to ankle, patella, ligaments, and tendons.


  • to employ the hyper excitability of the CNS created by breif powerful muscular tension, to enhance the subsequent specific work, in order to develop explosive strength & the reactive ability of the neuro muscular apparatus.

  • any irritant which stimulates muscle activity, however short term, leaves traces in the nervous system. the trace phenomenon remains for some time after the stimulation has ceased. These traces can have a significant effect on the subsequent muscular activity; in particular, enhance the magnitude of this activity. For example,the preliminary isometric tension has a positive effect on the subsequent dynamic work. This effectiveness of this preliminary tension is up to 20% higher in comparison with the work conducted without preliminary isometric tension.

study: the effect of throwing an object after stimulatory work increases on the average by 38-40% after preliminary stimulating work (pressing a barbell with 80% of maximum, 3 sets of 3, followed by rest between first and second bout of work for 5-6 minutes.

  • movement time reduced, amplitude is greater, speed of movement increased significantly, power of work increase significantly
  • trace phenomena in the NS and their effect on subsequent work are the end result of many factors: force of the tonic influence, degree of fatigue and time separating the preceding and subsequent work

back squat (tonic work)

after tonic work (back squat in this case), the max effort increases by 26% from the initial level after the first minute, and then by 4th/5th minute it reaches 65%. “the amount of time required for the maximum increase in effect falls 2.6% immediately after tonic work. Then this time drops to 3-4 minutes up to 4.6%, and the subsequent in
creases exceed the initial level considerably.”

  • the effect of the stimulation determines the amount of time to reach a maximum of force & duration of the after-effect of the tonic work. It is important at which moment the subsequent work starts.

vert stuff:
maximum height of the vertical standing jump is reached after the 3rd/4th minute. The difference is a 6.8% increase over the initial level. After the back squat, an increase of 8.0% from the initial level is realized in the 8th-10th minute after depth jumps.

adaptation process of MC determined and limited by 3 factors:

  • reserves and replenishment velocity of glycogen in the muscles and liver
  • duration of the synthesis of proteins
  • functional potential of the hormonal systems

entire volume of metabolic processes in the organism at the level of these reactions is regulated by the endocrine system.

  • repeated large loads in the MC can ensure a training effect only within their current functional capability.

  • “attempts to use large loads of different directivity 4-5 times a week with a 24 hours interval in order, for instance, to improve an athlete’s speed development ability & endurance during aerobic and anaerobic work, are hardly justified.”
    repeated volumetric loads would, irrespective of their direction, lead to exhaustion of the functional potential of the hormonal systems, and suppression of their functions….

  • protective reaction necessary to prevent the excessive exhaustion of the organism

  1. the intensified disintegration of proteins, as a result of intensive muscular work, undercuts an athlete’s ability to effect explosive efforts.
  2. a training session held the day after large load practicals, even if loads are reduced in volume and intensity but are of the same specific directivity, leads to the intensified expenditure of protein
  3. “with the 3rd training session running, even if volumetric (moderate intense) loads are employed, there begin protein synthesis and plastic processes, the urea level goes down, and the NMA function begins to restore.4. if rest given after 3 days, organism will fully restore its initial state. if a large load day follows again, the aforementioned trend in the dynamics of functionality will repeat itself.

    training day:

    experiments with daily repeated intensive training practicals reduce athletes’ reserves of carbohydrates, which reveals itself in the reduction of glycogen content in the working muscle groups and in glucose content in the blood.

when a movement is produced from a state of complete relaxation, the subsequent action is usually slower and less forceful — verkoshanksy


quickness – rapid movement entailing little resistance or muscular effort

  • specific capacity of CNS to regulate efficiently psychomotor function

velocity – which relates to movements requiring a considerable output of energy and against high resistance

  • based on regulatory mechanisms and on necessary metabolic processes

brief duration movements; two conditions

  1. does not require great expenditure of strength or energy
  • occurs through speed conceived and implemented in the motor cortex of the brain
  • quickness
  • specific functional capacity involving athlete’s psychomotor skills
  • specific capacity of CNS to regulat psychomotor function
  1. significant expenditure of energy & muscular effort
  • velocity etc
  • speed of movement or locomotion indicates the degree of the athlete’s special preparation

movement quickness depends on which fibers are primarily aroused (SLOW (STF) or FAST (FTF))

  • primarily fast twitch athletes have higher speed of movement and strength
  • athletes whose nervous systems have a low strength threshold, ie, those who are excitable and impulsive, are quicker
  • when quickness of movement does not require endurance or strength, high work volumes are inadequate – work volumes for high level sprinters are usually low.

examples of quickness of movement;

  • short latency period of muscular reaction
  • latent period characterized by two factors:
  • regulation of neuro-motor apparatus (cannot significantly be improved) and the motor structure of movement
  • simple isolated movement (no overloads)
  • single blow in boxing, shot in hockey, etc
  • movement involving more than one joint and requiring a variation of body position in space, or the transition from one action to the other, without great external resistance
  • co-ordination is more complex
  • boxer needing to change direction, stepping sideways, moving body and head in opposite directions, changing from attack to defense
  • rate of a movement without overload.
  • can be observed between 9 and 13

when the required co-ordination is complex when a greater body mass is transferred, quickness depends on strength”.

“if we consider the functional anatomical structure of the human body, its maximum speed of movement is influenced by the fact that a higher rate can be achieved by the uppers limbs as against the lower limbs, and by the left-hand limbs as against the right hand limbs.”

“it has been observed that the maximum rate of all movements involving a single joint has no correlation with maximum stride rate or a sprinter’s running speed.”

“the rate of movement increases when symmetrical muscles are involved, or when the accoustic analyzer is stimulated. In boxing, the rate of movement has a direct connection with breathing rhythm and to the boxer’s ability to control his rhythm. Another important factor that favors a high rate of movement is muscular relaxation.”

quickness influenced mainly by two factors:

  1. organization and functional regulation of the neuromotor apparatus
  • strictly individual (cannot be improved significantly, genotype)
  1. active and operative implementation of the motor structure of the movement
  • responds to training & provides potential development of quickness
  • master motor co-ordination


velocity – mobilization of a group of physiological systems

  • based on regulatory neurophysiological mechanisms and on metabolic processes
  • in acyclic movements, determined by muscles capacity to overcome external resistance.

sprinter’s performance:

  • depends on a number of motor abilities (such as explosive strength, initial acceleration capacity, ability to maintain maximum speed over a given distance, endurance capacity.

  • INITIAL ACCELERATION determined by stride length (not stride rate), achieve through high level of explosive & maximum strength of muscles involved. acceleration is totally different than the rest of the race: “the correlation between speed strength index of the thigh flexor muscles and the initial rate of acceleration is very significant, while the correlation between this same index and running speed in the rest of the race is not significant”

“the main difference between a practice run performed at maximum or medium intensity, or a long jump performed with a complete or with a short run up, lies in the intensity of the impulse current from the motor cortex of the brain, which determines the intensity of the work performed by the motor apparatus and, consequently, determines energy requirements.”

high velocity types of locomotion are performed without direct afferent signals (ballistic movements for examples). CNS determines structure in space & accuracy.

high velocity cyclic types of locomotion

  • feedback very important for correction of successive movement cycles
  • an increase in velocity (ie running) depends on the frequency of the cerebral cortex impulses directed to the motor neurons of the spinal cord.
  • these impulses arouse and coordinate the skeletal muscles.
  • at same time, motor cortex controls flow of afferent signals providing info on the results achieved (feedback)

energy production:

  • characterized by speed and intensity of mobilization of energy in muscle fibers
  • ie, speed of ATP breakdown when cns impulses arrive
  • speed of contraction/relaxation of muscles depends on myosin atpase and on fast action of calcium pump which determines calcium ion concentration in the myofibrillar inter-space of muscle cells.
  • when high degress of strength required, m.vel also depends on the contractile protein content of the muscle.
  • when repeated several times at high velocity: need for ATP anaerobic re-synthesis (creatne kinsase/glycolysis)
  • duration – determined by the possibility of ATP aerobic re-synthesis and by body’s energy potential (ie amount of glycogen reserves in muscle/liver)

“an increase in respiratory atp re-synthesis is very important in speed training:
during rest period : energy re-synthesis occurs from aerobic phosphorolysis (recovery for reps/speed training)
when sprinter runs 100m in 10.0 sec, does not require high production of aerobic energy, but he does need adequate aerobic capacity to achieve a fast recovery, and therefore, be capable of performing a number of reps during training”

muscle relaxation:

  • very important
  • very imp for cyclic types of locomotion
  • associated w/ atp re-synthesis between muscle contraction
  • relaxation time varies as skill improves
  • some sprinters ; improvement in performance mainly result of an increase in muscle strength
  • talented sprinters – show a very slight increase in strength & greater capacity for muscular relaxation

muscle elasticity:

  • important in cyclic/acyclic locomotion
  • accumulating elastic energy during the preparation phase of a task and employing it fully for the execution of the task, through an increase in strength of motor impulse.
  • economical : 60% of total mechanical energy can be recovery, only about 40% is really spent in movement cycle. last quota replaced by metabolic energy sources.
  • as velocity increases, percentage of non-metabolic energy increases

speed training adaptive changes to CNS, physiological, and bio-chemical, develop more slowly than do the capacities for strength & endurance, can only be maintained for brief periods of time.

adaptive changes induced by strength training & speed training are very similar

  • increase in muscle myoglobin, indicates an adaptation to oxygen deficit
  • increase in myosin ATPase and Ca2 consumption in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (favors fast contraction & tensile strength)
  • strength training induces significant increase in elastic myostromin, allows better, faster muscle relaxation.

four specific high velocity work regimens:

  • acyclic work, concentrated / isolated effort followed by relatively long pause
  • determined by total muscular effort
  • increase in velocity may be obtained by increasing the force transferred to the body or the implement thus shortening the time of execution of movement.
  • improving capacity of motor cortex to dispatch intense efferents to muscles, increasing potential of body’s functional systems and organizing their rational interaction, intensifying the energy mechanisms and by creating methodical bio-dynamic structure of sports movement.
  • for throwers, performance improves by increases in circulatory system, achieved through increase in stroke volume and decrease of heart rate and of peripheral resistance.

- initial accelerations – speed developed very quickly, aim being to achieve maximum speed in shortest time

  • determined by body’s maximum anaerobic power
  • high correlation between maximum anaerobic power and maximum muscle strength
  • high anaerobic power allows organism to repeat initial accelerations efficiently (during training and competition)
  • maximum anaerobic power (MAP) best developed through specific strength training, organized according to particiular competition requirements.
  • bobsled tries to recruit throwers, jumpers, and sprinters
  • distance work – speed endurance, in which high speed must be maintained for longer time
  • alternate work, includes all above regimens

cyclic locomotion:

  • intensity determined by intensity of impulse of motor cortex of brain
  • three distances
  • sprints (impulse current = maximum), activates fast twitch and intermediate fibers
  • increase in anaerobic ATP re-synthsis, phosphocreatine, and glycogenolysis, which produce lactic acid in muscles involved and in blood
  • main sources of energy : PCr and muscle glycogen
  • speed limit set by capacity of motor cortex to maintain maximum impulse intensity, speed and potential of metabolic reactions, amount of PCr and glycogen reserves in muscle, and the level of lactate concentration in muscles.
  • middle (sub max)
  • intensity of impulse current to the spinal cord motor neurons and motor apparatus work is lower
  • mainly slow twitch and intermediate muscle fibers, small percentage of fast
  • energy substrates = glycogen and free fatty acids
  • work capacity determined by oxygen transport, determined by pulmonary ventilation & by flow rate of blood (related to HR and to systolic blood flow).
  • oxidative capacity of the slow twitch fibers is extremely important.
  • long distance (medium)

cyclic sport speed:

  • determined by movement rhythm (stride rate) and intensity of effort (stride length).
  • average velocity of a cyclic movement (Vm) : Vm = L x R: L = stride length, R = stride rate.
  • final result determined by energy expenditure
  • specificity of movement depends on “forward impulse” and on vertical oscilation of the athlete’s centre of gravity, which greatly influences energy consumption.
  • stride rate/length can be automatically found in well trained athletes, allows for minimum oxygen consumption.
  • longer stride more efficient in terms of energy consumption, due to optimal rate of movement.
  • runner must have a high level of explosive strength, in order to have a long, elastic running stride. must also have considerable local strength/endurance, in order to maintain stride length over the entire distance and in the final spurt.
  • speed tends to increase at first because of stride length
  • during final burst of sprint, athletes tend to decrease stride length, stride rate and movement velocity. length decreases before decrease in speed, rate is increased. when rate cannot compensate, the sprint then suffers.
  • well trained athlete will use less energy to move the same load, as lesser trained athlete
  • high level runners have shorter contraction times, and higher relaxation times.o

“high psychological tension causes a deterioration of the physiological, biochemical, and psychological functions, with a resulting negative influence on movement velocity and technique (co-ordination).

“athletes with a high work capacity, therefore, have an exceptional economy in oxygen consumption and blood flow rate, this provides stable respiratory parameters and thus influences the efficiency of the energy supply and recovery”

requirements of particular locomotion velocity depend on:

  • total duration of game
  • duration of specific phases of game
  • duration of breaks
  • size of playing field
  • characteristics of body’s work regimen
  • relationship between active and passive actions and possibilities of recovering during game

Capacity by Sport
sport capacity
volleyball strength endurance (particularly for jumps)
tennis explosive strength, maximum anaerobic power
wrestling maximum strength, explosive strength, strength & speed endurance
games on large fields strength endurance, explosive strength, max anaerobic power,
fencing reaction time, static endurance, dynamic endurance
boxing rate endurance, speed endurance, explosive strength endurance

training should be improved for cardiovascular system and adaptation of muscular system to oxygen consumption and to aerobic metabolism.


  1. velocity & quick show significant correlation when their is slight external resistance, when the movement is simple, and when intensity and duration are low… otherwise correlation is not significant
  2. determining the limiting factors of speed and of quickness are different. require different means and methods.
  3. no limit to development of movement velocity (locomotion), as opposed to quickness. limit to development of quickness set by individual characteristics. development of velocity is practically limitless, because the development of strength and of endurance, as well as improvement of co-ordination, is unlimited.


improving in jumping/throwing determined by athlete’s speed strength levels


  • the more the better is not always true, optimal load volume should be used
  • parallel use of special strength training & technique training employing a great amount of corresponding methods, which reduces the effectiveness & quality of technique training
  • nonspecific methods which have lost their training effect & demand alot of time/energy
  • over-saturation with strength workouts during periods of the year in which there is no acute need for them
  • an unoriginal approach to speed-strength training, using the same means & methods year after year

correlation between absolute muscle strength, the ways to develop it, and qualitative movement characteristics.

  • has a negative effect on movement speed and on the ability of a muscle to display explosive efforts
  • amount needed determined by sport (by amount of resistance to overcome and/or the speed with which it must be overcome)
  • needed if athlete must overcome great external resistance and if there is even the briefest isometric contraction along with a significant external load (hammer throw/triple jump/high jump/shot put)
  • less absolute strength needed to overcome light external resistance (long jump/javeline throw)
  • if external resistance is insignificant (sprinting/hurdling), even lower absolute strength required

“any excessive amount of strength work, executed over a prolonged period of time, reduces movement speed and a muscle’s ability to display explosive efforts. A cyclic, wave-like increase and decrease in the amount of strength work provides the same wave-like but steady increase in movement speed and explosive muscle strength”.

“a reduction in the amount of strength work, providing a chance for the body to recover and advance to a higher functional level, is quite important at this stage. A brief period of active rest provides good recovery after intensive high-volume strength work, and speed-strength may rise by 10-15%.”

“the need to isolate the magnitude (of total work) and the duration (distribution over time) of strength training volume. specifically, the concentrated or distributeed variants should be distinguished.
concentrated : involves a concentration of strength work over a limited span of time
distributed = involves a distribution of the same or slightly greater volume of strength work over a prolonged period of time

distributed: speed strength indicators increase at first, then they drop, and after a stoppage of high volume work they have a tendency to increase slightly.

  • variant of high volume loads does not provide a substantial increase in special strength fitness level

concentrated variant: more effective

  • characterized by a drop and then a significant rise in speed strength
  • this is a manifestation of the so called “delayed training effect” of strength work
  • magnitude greater if concentrated strength work is followed by specialized work of moderate volume, but with a higher power output of the muscular contractions (technique work, competitions, controlled starts)
  • concentrated work depends on it’s content and structure
  • methods with a greater training effect are introduced, successively, into training (jumping exercises, barbell exercises, jumps (leaps) after depth jumps

technique work

  • throwing w/ maximal and submax efforts
  • jumps with full approach etc
  • executed in high volume
  • this is maximally specialized speed-strength work
  • “actual data show that a 2 month concentrated volume of strength work (with subsequent specialized work) provides an increase in speed-strength for 2-3 months”

strength work ………………. technique work
preparatory period …………. competitive period


resistance exercise:

  • improve muscular strength
  • improve speed of movement
  • local muscular endurance
  • velocity & frequency of movement without resistance
  • reaction time
  • rate of muscle relaxation

main criteria of the work effectiveness of sport movement:

  • speed of muscular contraction

    speed depends on:
  • magnitude of muscular tension
  • velocity at which the tension increases

the higher the external resistance, the higher the magnitude of tension that must be reached in order to obtain the necessary speed of contraction.

the increase of the speed of muscle contraction, as a result of training, is obtained through the increase of the following:

  • moto neuron impulse
  • muscular hypertrophy
  • power & capacity of energy providing mechanisms
  • functional supporting physiological systems of the organism
  • more effective utilization of the motor potential of athlete assured by the appropriation of more expediant biomechanics of movement.

the higher the level of sport mastery and physical preparedness of the athlete, the more specific the base mechanism is that assures the speed of muscle contraction during the competition activity.

aim of SPP;

  • intensify the regimen of muscular work
  • activate all physiological systems that functionally support the concrete muscular activity
  • should be very close or even exceed the level required for competition
  • intensification of the regimen of muscle work can be obtained by resistance exerciss

when using resistance, important to consider;

  1. exercises have a constant vector of external opposition force (Vertically down), careful choice of initial position/position at which max effort is produced
  2. two criteria for selecting exercises for competition:
  • form of movement (muscle groups involved, direction, and amplitude of movement
  • regiment of muscle’s work (velocity of force produced, energy systems involved)
  • important that maximum effort is developed at the same joint angle as it is during competition
  1. choosing weight and method of training resistance exercises should be oriented towards:
    a = max strenth, b = explosive strength, c = speed strength, d = strength endurance, e = local muscular endurance

a. maximum strength: when a sporting event requires overcoming great external resistance, and the increase of speed of movement by creating max effort
b. explosive strength: when a sport requires fast acceleration or change in direction of movement with significant external resistance
c. speed strength: when speed of movement is achieved by overcoming relatively small resistance
d. strength endurance: when force production should be sustained for a period of time
e. local muscular endurance: when a sport requires continuous speed at submaximal intensity

resistance training conducted through

  • max effort
  • series repetitive
  • interval
  • complex

“elite athletes have very high levels of SPP; however, it is possible to further raise this level through very intense methods of training. Therefore resistance training should not be used as a complimentary training but rather as part of the main training regimen.”

“during extensive resistance training, the speed of movement temporarily decreases, which is normal. Later, speed not only recovers to the previous level, but significantly increases. Therefore, mastery of skills and speed training should be started after the cycle of resistance training”.

resistance exercise can be effective only if:

  • incorporated into a methodical system as a part of a yearly cycle

increase strength by increasing load, speed or tempo of movement in the interval method

what to evaluate

  • main training direction of selected exercises and methods and classify them
  • evaluate amplitude of training adaptation imposed by exercises and methods and rank them based on it
  • divide exercises and methods within certain time frames, define their volumes and relationships to other training protocols





some more stuff from verk:

“any excessive amount of strength work, executed over a prolonged period of time, reduces movement speed and a muscle’s ability to display explosive efforts. A cyclic, wave-like increase and decrease in the amount of strength work provides the same wave-like but steady increase in movement speed and explosive muscle strength”.

“a reduction in the amount of strength work, providing a chance for the body to recover and advance to a higher functional level, is quite important at this stage. A brief period of active rest provides good recovery after intensive high-volume strength work, and speed-strength may rise by 10-15%.”

concentrated variant: more effective

  • characterized by a drop and then a significant rise in speed strength
  • this is a manifestation of the so called “delayed training effect” of strength work
  • magnitude greater if concentrated strength work is followed by specialized work of moderate volume, but with a higher power output of the muscular contractions (technique work, competitions, controlled starts)
  • concentrated work depends on it’s content and structure
  • methods with a greater training effect are introduced, successively, into training (jumping exercises, barbell exercises, jumps (leaps) after depth jumps

adaptive changes induced by strength training & speed training are very similar

  • increase in muscle myoglobin, indicates an adaptation to oxygen deficit
  • increase in myosin ATPase and Ca2 consumption in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (favors fast contraction & tensile strength)
  • strength training induces significant increase in elastic myostromin, allows better, faster muscle relaxation.

the increase of the speed of muscle contraction, as a result of training, is obtained through the increase of the following:

  • moto neuron impulse
  • muscular hypertrophy
  • power & capacity of energy providing mechanisms
  • functional supporting physiological systems of the organism
  • more effective utilization of the motor potential of athlete assured by the appropriation of more expediant biomechanics of movement.


These were taken from Verkhoshansky’s forum a few years ago, he has plenty more on his forum so check it out: . Unfortunately the forum got broken a few times and posts are all mangled.

Shock Method Volume & Low Intensity Depth Jumps

I suggest to perform not more than 389 – 400 Shock Method Depth Jumps (4 series of 10 Depth Jumps three times a week) at the end of the preparation period, after the maxi
mal strength stage.

The use of Shock method, as no other training means, need to be” periodizated”.

The “low intensity plyometrics between shock phases” is not a good solution: the execution of Depth jump with not maximal effort could destroy the execution technique of this exercise. It’s better to use another exercises: the long bounces or the serial jumps.

Base Principle of Concentrate Blocks.

“You can use every duration of strength concentrated loads (from one week to one month) it depends by the time that you have for preparation to the competition. The base principle is: if you have at your disposal a longer preparation period, you have more time for the concentrated strength stage and you could obtain more high level of final sport result.”

Improving 20m Sprint Speed

To improve 20 meters speed the special physical preparation should include three type of training means:

  •     overload exercises for maximal strength increasing,
  •     jumping and bouncing exercises for explosive strength increasing;
  •     specific bouncing and running exercises for starting strength increasing.

The best explosive strength bouncing exercise for the starting acceleration improvement is 3 – 5 bounces from leg to leg.

The best running exercise for the starting strength improvement is the speed running with large steps. The technique is similar to the bouncing but the landing phases are much more quickly and elastic (by page 35 of “Manual for coaches”):

“The jumps from leg to leg are done for a distance of 50 m and the time is recorded. The athlete starts by pushing off from both legs as in the standing long jump, and then lands on one and then alternates the legs consecutively. In one series there are 3-5 sets with a rest of 4-6 minutes between sets. In all, there are 2-4 series with a rest break of 8-10 minutes between series. This is a very good means for developing the power of starting acceleration.”.

For starting strength increasing could be used also the serial two legs jumps execution. The consecutive two legs bounces throw 8 -10 low track&field hurdles should be performed with the all exercise execution time registration (as soon as possible). To avoid an injuries in this danger exercise is better use every kind of “soft hurdles”.

With my best wishes for your work,

Yuri Verkhoshansky

How To Perform Depth Jumps

Dear Matt Barr,

  1.   How important is it to minimize the landing/amortization time during drop jumps?  Is it more important, equally important or less important than the height reached during the subsequent jump?

The aim of Shock Method Depth (Drop) Jump is to increase the explosive strength and reactive capacity. The increasing of explosive strength and reactive capacity depend on the increasing of the height reached during the subsequent jump. The landing/ amortisation time is a parameter of the Deth Jump execution.

In one of my experiments I tried to understand how could be changed the Depth Jump height and the lending time in the relation with the formulating of the aim of the exercise:

  1. “to drop in low and to jump in aloft”. Result: h – 69 cm t – 0.24 s.

  2. “to drop in low and to jump in aloft as high as possible with more fast “lending – amortization”

Result: h – 58 cm t – 0.20 s

  1. “to drop in low and to jump in aloft as high as possible with more slow “lending – amortization”. Result: h – 73 cm, t – 0.31 s

So, when the athlete try to minimize the lending/amortization time in Depth Jump execution, he cannot realize the maximal explosive strength effort.

The best Depth Jump result was obtained when I asked only “to lend softly and to jump in aloft as high as possible”.

From the results of experiment we can observe that the execution technique and the result of Depth Jump depend on the formulating of the aim of the exercise. If the athlete try to obtain the maximal jump height he performs the Depth jump with the maximal height and with the optimal landing time. If the athlete tries to obtain the minimal lending time he performs the Depth jump with minimal lending time, but the jump height could not be maximal.

  1. Is there a relationship between the maximal barbell squat strength of an athlete and the drop heights that they can execute the shock method from? For example would an athlete who can squat twice their body weight be able to execute drop jumps more effectively from a higher drop height than an athlete who can only squat their own body weight.

In another experiment I studied the relationship between the drop height of Depth Jump and the parameters of its execution.

Thirty-six Track&Field athletes (jumpers, throwers and sprinters) performed series of Depth Jump with different drop heights (from 0.15 to 1.55 m): in each series of Depth Jumps the drop height was 20 cm different one from another. It was evaluated: the reactivity coefficient (R = jump height – drop height), the maximal explosive strength effort (F max), the maximal power output (N) and the landing time (T).

Athletes with different level of leg flexor muscles maximal strength performed this experiment: sprinters, jumpers and throwers, all these athletes performed the Depth jump with the bests R (circa 15.5 ), N (circa 375 kgm/s) and T ( circa 0. 235 s) when the drop height was of 0.75 m. The Depth jump with the best Fmax (circa 300 kg) was executed when the drop height was of 0.95 – 1.15 m.

So, the Shock Method could be used for the reactive capacity increasing (Dept jump from 0.75 height) or for the maximal explosive strength effort increasing (Dept jump from 0.95 – 1.15 m height).

Unluckily I didn’t study the relationship between the leg flexor muscles maximal strength of the athletes and the drop height of the Depth Jump in which they performed the best R and Fmax.

Nevertheless the results of my experiment indicated that, when the Depth jump has been used for the reactive capacity increasing, the drop height should have 0.75 m, and it doesn’t depend on the legs strength of athletes.

When the Depth Jump has been used for maximal explosive effort increasing, the optimal drop height, probably, could be different for the athletes with different level of maximal leg flexor strength and it should be found for every athlete through measuring the results of Depth Jumps with different drop height (from 0.95 to 1.15 m).

Yuri Verkhoshansky

General Model of an Olympic Lifter Block System

thanks for your question, by chance in these weeks I’m working on this issue for the new edition of “SST: Practical Manual for coach”.

After your first post I tried to answer you in a synthetic way that is more appropriate for a forum but I didn’t finished because there is a lot of important details in the Olympic Lifters block system program that is difficult to synthesize.

At the moment I can only give you indication about the general model of Olympic lifter block system, it could be represented in three blocks dedicated to improve:

Block A – the maximal strength

Block B – the explosive strength and the power output

Block C – the maximal power output in the specific competition exercises.

The Shock method should be used starting from the end of block A until block C with gradual increasing of its intensity (the fall height), but it‘s important to know how to link this method with the others in the training sessions and in the different micro-cycles of Block A and Block B.

I know that this is a non exhaustive answer but I think you can understand that all the aspects of this issue need to be treated in an article or in a book.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Peaking Too Early

Dear Ronald Madison,

I understand very well your problem, but I cannot answer exactly to your question without the possibility to see you during your training process, because all depend by the reactions of your organism to the volume and the intensity of preceding work loads. This reactions are very different from one athlete to another and I can give you only some general advices.

If you have consistently peaked too early for competitions this could happen for different reasons:

  •      the total volume of the sub maximal range ancillary lifts training was not enough: try to increase it, but don’t use it in high volume during the maximal lifts training stage;
  •      you reduced your ancillary training and begin to introduce maximal lifts in the bench press and deadlift  too early: try to do it a little bit later than 4 – 6 weeks;

Regards the use of explosive exercises during the training with maximal loads, I think that it’s possible, but you should be very careful to not increase too much the total work loads volume.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Training Losing Its Effectiveness

Dear Paul Evans,

I think that this problem could be related more with the general law of physical training: every kind of training method has a temporal limit of his effectiveness. For HIT method this limit is probably 6 – 9 months.

The effectiveness of any training methods decreases during its use.

It happens because of the organism adaptation (decreasing of response efficiency) to the long time influence of the same kind of stimulus. For this reason “to achieve greater strength and hypertrophy you need to apply greater stimulus, set” or simply to change training method.

In your case, the reason of the HIT method effectiveness decreasing could be related also with too short intervals between training sessions (three times a week). If you remember, in the HIT method the duration between training session should be not constant and sometimes much longer than 48 hours.

Yuri Verkhoshansky


Dear Robert Heynderickx,

I think that there is nothing of paradoxical in this “phenomenon” because you described three different kind of exercises. All these exercises have the same movements composition (bounding from leg to leg) but different execution technique that determines their different training emphasis.

  1. The multiple jump from leg to leg executed on horizontal track. This jump exercises are divided into “short” jumps consisting of 4-6 maximum full force takeoffs and “long” ones for a distance of 40 to 100 m. that are executed with sub maximal take-offs at a moderate rate striving to advance ahead as fast as possible. In training sprinters, it is best to use a combination of the “short” and “long” jump exercises in different training sessions. The first (short) jump exercises promote an increase in starting acceleration speed and the second (long), speed of the run over the distance (see the book “Special Strength training: practical manual for coach”, page 41).

  2. The uphill running (bounding) are finalised to the local muscular endurance increasing. In all variants of uphill running it is necessary to be guided by the following methodological rule: the main task is not the speed of locomotion but the accentuated take-off by the foot together with a vigorous upward and forward movement by the thigh of the swing leg (see “The uphill running” in the book “Special Strength training: practical manual for coach”, page 47).

  3. The “jumping (bounding) running” executed on the horizontal track are finalised to push up time decreasing. This exercise should be executed with maximal speed but trying to maintain the steps length (see “The jumps from leg to leg are done for a distance of 50 m and the time is recorded…” in “Special Strength training: practical manual for coach”, page 35).

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Recovery Workouts

Dear Cory Englebert,

the recovery workouts while the concentrated strength block must include means that assure increase of blade circulation and muscular relaxation. There are two types of recovery workouts: the special recovery training sessions and the recovery intervals between the strength exercise sets.

The special recovery training sessions have include two principal elements:

  1. a less intensity aerobic activity under the anaerobic threshold level. This could be a cross running and also elements of the proper sport discipline activity. Sometimes it could be also swimming;
  2. “Russian Warm Up” exercises: general postural gymnastic dynamic exercises with ample cyclic movements (pendulum swinging and rotations) executed increasing step by step the amplitude of movements. Each cyclic movement of this exercises should be executed in the first phase with light inertial muscle stretching and in the second phase with the maximal muscle relaxation. To have a good relaxation effect with this exercises it’s very important to be concentrated in filling the difference between tension and relaxation.

In the recovery training sessions it’s also possible add some stretching exercises but they should not be hard static stretching. For example, my daughter in the training of her athletes uses some simplified Ayengar Postural Yuoga exercises (on the floor). It’s very important to be relaxed during these exercises: they should be executed very slowly with long expiration during the stretching phase (without apnoea) and inspiration in the relaxation phase.

The recovery intervals between the strength exercise sets should include the same two elements (without stretching exercises): light long acceleration running (60-100 m), returning walking and some general warm up exercises with muscle relaxation and legs and arms “shaking”.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

How To Perform A STIM Complex

Dear Jamie Douse,

you complete all sets of the tonic exercises and after you complete all sets of the development exercises.

This is the variant of the complex method, in which:

  •    the first work (tonic), consist in 2 sets of 6-8 jumps with  Russian Kettlebell held between the legs
  •    the second work (developing), consist in 2 sets of 5-6 repetitions of multiple long jumps  (6 or 8 jumping passes from leg to leg).

After you have completed two sets of tonic work with Russian Kettlebell (2 set of 6-8 jumps with 3-4 minutes of rest between every set) you should have a rest of 3-4 minutes.

After this you pass to the developing work:

  1.  execute the multiple long jump (6 or 8 steps from leg to leg) with the maximum effort;
  2.  return to the starting place and immediately repeat the exercise 1);
  3.  return to start place and repeat the exercise 1) again for 4-5 times. This is one set of 5-6 repetitions of exercise.
  4.  After, you should have a rest interval of 4-6 minutes, than you repeat the same set of 5-6 repetitions of the same exercise: i.e. the multiple long jump with (6 or 8 steps from leg to leg) with the maximum effort.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

SUPERMETHODS & 200-400m Sprinting

Dear Jamie Douse,

if I understood well your question, you asked me if it’s possible to use the super-method, described in your precedent message, to improve your result in running events in 400, 200 and possibly 100 metres.

I think, that’s possible. Generally, any methodical change of training assures the improvement of the sport result, especially if a more effective method is introduced. To assure the improvement of the result you should introduce this new method in correct way in the whole training system, i.e. in coherence with the other types of training and with the level of your preparedness.

To use with success the super-methods, you have to:

  1.  visit a sport cardiologist to verify the state of your health and the possibility to increase the intensity of your training load;
  2.  elaborate your personalized training plan on the base of  the analysis of your training loads of the preceding year.

After that, you can start to use this type of training with the lowest dose of load, but before you start with it you should have a period of weight training devoted to the strengthening of your body.

Another thing that I can suggest you is to address your effort to run 400 meters because at your age there are more possibilities to improve the result in 400 meters than in 200 or 100 meters.

To improve your result in 400 mt I can suggest you a scheme of the training system, on the base of which it is possible to elaborate the plan of your training.

In the following I expose you a general scheme of the plan. To elaborate it and make it your training plan you should analyze the methodology and the principles of Block system training (we will publish soon in the SSTM a new article on the this matter).

Stage 1. Strengthening of the “anti-gravitational” muscles through the use of the exercises with overload to develop the Maximal Strength (if you are already strong enough, there is no need to increase it notably). The training with overload can be performed three times a week. In the other days you should perform running exercises (prolonged aerobics run, long accelerations and other run exercises performed in light way) and auxiliary exercises (stretching, core and postural gymnastic etc.).

Stage 2. Increasing of explosive strength and the maximal anaerobic power with the use of the super-method that you have mentioned in your preceding message. This type of work can be performed twice a week at the beginning and after three times a week. In the other days you should train like in precedent stage.

Stage 3. Increasing of the anaerobic alactacid capacity (of the alactacid threshold ) with the use of the alternate leaps in slope: 2-3 series of the two sets with 3-4 – repetitions. The rest among the series is 10-15 minutes, among the sets it is of 8-10 minutes, among the exercises the rest is the necessary time to return to the starting point.

The inclination of the slope must not be steep (no more than 10 degrees). The initial distance is 20 meters and it is increased until 40-50 meters in coherence with the increase of your capacity to perform this exercise. You must try to increase the power of the push in forward and, as consequence, to increase the length of the footsteps without losing the rhythm and the looseness of movements.

This type of work can be performed twice a week at the beginning and after, three times a week. In the other days you should train like in precedent stage but with higher intensity of aerobic running (fartlek on the anaerobic threshold speed level).

Stage 4. Track & Field Training: you should perform the specific exercises for 100, 200 and 400 meters runners.

The exercise of long acceleration, which in the preceding stages has been used as auxiliary mean, in the Stage 4 has to be performed in a different way: you should try to reach the maximal speed and to increase gradually the distance of its maintenance.

I wish repeat that this scheme is only a general base of your possible training plan. The content of this plan (the load dosing, the stages duration and the whole duration of the program) have to be elaborated on the base of Block system training methodology and your preceding training experience analyses.

I wish you good luck.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Dear Jamie Douse,

from the Block System Training methodology point of view, your strength training program should have the following periods:

Block A:

A1 – The preparatory stage. Strengthening of: most important muscles for the speed running, their antagonist muscles and upper body muscles; with the use of 10-5 RM meth
A2 – The maximal strength stage. Increasing of maximal strength of pushing up leg muscles, with the use of 1-3 RM method.

A3 – The speed-strength stage. Increasing of explosive strength and maximal anaerobic power with the use of the complex super-method, in which the first work (tonic) co
nsist in 2 sets of 6-8 jumps with Russian Kettlebell held between the legs and the second work (developing) consist in 2 sets of 5-6 repetitions of multiple long jumps
(6 or 8 jumping passes from leg to leg).

Block B:

B1 – The specific power stage. Increasing of the running footsteps length and the anaerobic alactacid capacity (of the alactacid threshold ) with the use of the alternate
leaps in slope.

B2 – The specific running speed stage. Track & Field Training: the performing of the 200 and 400 meters runners specific training methods (including glicolitic interval

Block C: 400 m e 200 mt distance running in preliminary competitions.

Your questions concern the strength exercises contents of the Block A (A1 and A2).

To understand well my following comments it will be better see the general scheme of the training programs stages constructions in my book “Special Strength training: a practical manual for coaches”: Program for High Level Tennis Players (page 113), Special Strength Training Program For Basketball Players (page 104).

Stage A1 main exercises.

  1.  Strengthening of the most important speed running muscles groups (involved in push up and long footstep), for example:
  •     Barbell squat (10-5 RM)
  •     Heel (cal raise) with bar on shoulders (10-5 RM)
  •     “Soleum”- heel (cal rise) with weight on the knees (10 RM)
  •     “Long” jump exercises are executed on soft, resilient ground (page 42).
  •     Jumping exercises with overload: Squat jump with barbell and Scissor-lunge jumps

(jump out of a lunge [stride] position with a switch in the legs, alternating on every jump on the page 44, figure 30 and see also the Program for Top Level Middle Distance Runners on the page 88)

  •     Exercises for the hip flexor muscles (for example, figure 31 on the page 44 or figures 6a, 7 and 8 on the page 7)
  •     Long footstep walking  with barbell on scolders
  •     Low Scissor-lunge jumps with barbell on shoulders (the energise switches in the legs)

If you want, at this stage you could include other strength exercises (that you normally use) and also Deadlifting, but I think that for runners, Squat is more important than Deadlifting.

  1. Strengthening of upper body (arms, back, abdominal) and legs “antagonist” muscles with standard block machine and free weight exercises (10 RM method) with large movements amplitude (not with the Bodybuilding technique).

Stage A2 main exercises.

Increasing of leg muscles maximal strength (for the push up power increasing):

  •      Barbell squat (3-1 RM)
  •      Heel (cal raise) with bar on shoulders (3-1 RM).

You can also continue the hip flexor muscles exercises use, but not so match.

The barbell exercises technique should be standard for Olympic sport disciplines.

The level of the maximal strength can be increase still you “should be able to squat 1.5 times bodyweight” (I think that your “theory” is right, but, anyway, it’s a very individual question).

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Block System For 800-1500m Athletes

Dear Anthony Colotti,

for the 800-1500 meter the model must be changed a lot.

Advice: the following program is only a schema.
Block A:

A1 – The preparatory stage.

  1.   Strengthening of: most important muscles for the speed running,  their antagonist muscles and upper body muscles; with the use of 10-5 RM method.
  2.   Multiple long jumps (from leg to leg) on the 60-400 meter distance.
  3.   Aerobic running (cross).

A2 – The development of the Local Muscular Endurance and the Aerobic threshold level.

  1.   Interval jumping exercises with overload (see my book “Special Strength training: a practical manual for coaches”, page 43 “3.4 Development of Local Muscular Endurance”).
  2.   The Aerobic Threshold Fartlek.

A3 – Increasing of the running footsteps length, Local Muscular Endurance and Anaerobic threshold level.

  1.   200 – 800 meter Uphill running (page 47 of “Special Strength training: a practical manual for coaches”)
  2.   The Anaerobic Threshold Fartlek.

Block B:

The specific running speed stage. Track & Field Training: the performing of 800 and 1500 meters runners specific training methods (including glicolitic interval training).

Block C: 800 m or 1500 m distance running in preliminary competitions.

For your second question my answer is no if you use this program.

Before and during the competition block you can use only sprint training running exercises.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Kettlebells and Jump Squats

Dear Yosef,

if understood you are referring to squat jumps with two dumbbells one in the left and the other in the write hand.

I think that could be difficult for the athlete to execute well this kind of jump. If the dumbells are light, the athlete intuitively start to involve the arms in movements; the biodynamic structure of this exercise is not favourable for development of the leg’s explosive strength. If the dumbells are heavy, this exercise hands also the risk for the back muscles.

The barbell squat jumps can be substituted by squat jumps with Russian kettlebell if the athlete use this exercise standing on two high parallel benches or plinths and kettlebell don’t touch the floor in the extreme low position.

In this exercise:

  •      the arms are not involved in the movement because they are blocked by weight of the kettlebell;
  •      the opposition force vector that influence the vertebral column has a back direction component; to give opposition at this back component of the force the athlete uses the abdominal muscles to maintain the vertical position saving the lumbar curve, so the vertebral column should be much less damaged.

The Russian Kettlebell can be substituted by one big dumbell, but it’s not very comfortable to maintain it in the hands.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Dear Yosef,

5-10 sequence ketllebell jumps standing on two parallel high benches and 5-10 sequence barbell jumps are quite similar exercises if it is used the same weight of overload. These two exercises can be used for the explosive strength development, varying them from one training session to another to avoid the monotony of training process.

Both exercises are dangerous for the vertebral column if the athlete hasn’t the perfect technique of their execution: a correct vertical position of back (lumbar curve well evidenced) and a correct (soft) landing impact.

These exercises should be introduced very gradually in training process after the period of the non overload jump exercises use. In this way it’s possible to strengthening gradually the back muscles and vertebral column discs ligaments and to avoid accidents. In this period it’s very important keep under observation their execution technique.

What exercise could be more preferable? All depend on the level of the athlete and on the objectives of his training.

The barbell jumps are more harmful because it’s more difficult to maintain the correct back position in this movement and also because, if the landing impacts are too hard, the barbell can bump the vertebral column.

The ketllebell jumps are less harmful but their training potential have a limit – the weight of overload can’t be more than 32 kg. When the athlete already has a very high level of explosive strength but he needs to increase it more, he should use another exercise: the 5-6 single-sequence jumps with overload of 50-60 % (with brief relaxations of legs between every jumps). In this exercise can be used only one type of overload – the barbell. This exercise can be performed only with a belt, because it is very harmful for the vertebral column if the athlete has not a perfect technique of execution. A good technique of execution could be previously learned through the use of the squat jumps with light barbell.

So, if the athlete doesn’t need a very high level of explosive strength to increase his sport result, he can substitute the barbell squat jumps with the kettlebell squat jumps.

If the athlete’s future training objectives are connected with a very high increase of explosive strength (as in track and field jump disciplines, basket, volleyball, ski jumping), at the beginning of his preparation period (or at the beginning of his sport carrier) he needs the use of barbell jumps to improve gradually their execution technique and also to strengthening previously his back muscles and discs ligaments.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Hurdle Jumps and Jump Squats

Dear Marcelo Silva

in your situation the barbell squat jumps could be substituted by Plyo swing machine, but in my opinion the barbell squat jumps is more effective that Plyo swing machine to develop the explosive strength in the push up movement.

I know that soccer players don’t like weight training but they really need it.

In Italy has been found a compromise: the soccer players use the barbell squat jumps “in castello” (Technogym Multipower or Smith Machine).

The hurdle rebound jumps is e very good exercise but it is finalized more to develop the speed strength. You can use this exercise logging the total execution time of 7-10 hurdles jumps.

I must suggest you to use this exercises with hurdles more low and “soft” that I saw in your video, because this exercise is very dangerous: I was witness of very bad accidents during its executions.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Quads & Vert, Shock Method Results

Dear Emanuel Seitinger,
to know the relative force contribution of the muscles involved in the counter movement vertical jump I may suggest you to read the article of Taija Finni, Paavo V. Komi, Vesa Lepola “In vivo human triceps surae and quadriceps femoris muscle function in a squat jump and counter movement jump” (European Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 83, Numbers 4-5 / November, 2000)

I always asserted that the counter movement jump height cannot be used to evaluate the explosive strength, because it’s very influenced by the technique of the execution, that also foresees the optimal use of elastic energy of the muscles and the ligaments.

Nevertheless, the fact that the quadriceps only contributes 5% to the vertical jump also for me seems very unrealistic because the quadriceps are the most important knee extensor muscles.

So I think it needs to understand of what type of “contribution” we are talking about and how this fact could be used by the practical point of view.

Also if the contribution of the quadriceps muscles strength in the counter movement jump height is very low the improvement of strength of these muscles could be the only way to improve the jump height.

Because when you can’t improve the technique of this exercise execution, the increase of this result can be gotten through the increase of the explosive strength of the k
nee extensors muscles, included the quadriceps.

This increase can be assured by the use of maximal strength and explosive strength exercises (complex-parallel or conjugate-sequence) or by the Shock Method use.

Regarding this item I would put to your attention the results of two researches.

  1. N. To. Maffiuletti, C. Gometti, The. G. Amiridis, To. Martin, M. Pousson, J.-C. Chatard (“The Effects of Electromyostimulation Training and Basketball Practice on Muscle Strength and Jumping Ability”, Int J Sports Med 2000; 21: 437-44. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation training program on the strength of the knee extensors and the vertical jump performance of 10 basketball players. Electromyostimulation sessions were carried out 3 times weekly; each session consisted of 48 contractions. Testing was carried out before and after the electromyostimulation training program (week 4) and once more after 4 weeks of normal basketball training (week . At week 4, isokinetic strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) at eccentric and high concentric velocities (between 180 and 360 °); this was not the case for low concentric velocities (60 and 120 ° ). Electromyostimulation training increased also isometric strength at the two angles adjacent to the training angle (p < 0.01). Squat jump increased significantly by 14 % at week 4 (p < 0.01), whereas counter movement jump showed no change. At week 8, gains in isokinetic, isometric strength and squat jump performance were maintained and the counter movement jump performance increased significantly by 17 % (p < 0.01).

  2. My researches with Masalgin, Naraliev, Golovina “The influence of shock method on the electro miografic parameters of explosive movements” (see the Russian articles of this site) have shown that 4 weeks use of Shock Method (Drop Jump) allow:

  •      to increase the counter movement vertical jump height
  •      to increase the explosive strength expressed in the knee extension movement performed against the external opposition equal to the weight of the athlete.
  •      a notable changes of the electric activity of the quadriceps (the fastest mobilization of motor unities, the tallest frequency of their impulses and the tallest synchronization of moto-neurons at the beginning of the maximal explosive strength engagement).

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Strength Qualities

Dear Milan Komatina,
I should ask you for what kind of sport you create the table of strength training methods.

For Weightlifting, Bodybuilding, Fitness, or for Olympic disciplines? All these types of sport have different training objectives and should need appropriate tables of strength training methods.

If your table has referred to Olympic sport athletes I would like to expose you the following considerations

  1.  What is “strength speed” and “speed strength”? What is “strength endurance”?

I think is better to use more concrete parameter for the training effect names.

Maximal strength (Po) – characterizes the greatest magnitude of effort which the athlete can display when there is unlimited time. Maximal strength is most need when the movement is executed with great external resistance. This determines how great the maximum working effort will be / Fmax /.

High-speed strength (Fv) – is displayed in high-speed movements involving small external resistance.
Explosive strength - is characterizes by the athlete’s ability to display powerful efforts in the shortest amount of time. Explosive strength is determined by the relation of Fmax / tmax.

Starting strength - characterizes the ability of athlete to produce rapid increase in external force at the beginning of the muscle tension produced by muscles. It is measured by the tangent to the curve F /t.

Reactive ability – characterizes the specific quality of nervous-muscle system to display a powerful explosive effort immediately after sharp mechanical stretching of muscles by an external force. This regime is characterized by the fast switching of the muscles from eccentric work to concentric producing a maximal dynamic load at this moment. An example of this would be the take-off in jumping.

Local muscular endurance – is a characterized by the ability of separate groups of muscles and physiological systems of the body to ensured the motor activity while displaying the necessary level of efforts for e long period of time and with no decrease in their working effect.

Maximal anaerobic power – is the ability of the body to effectively execute the short-term (10-15 sec) work at maximum (utmost) capacity in cyclic or repeated regimes.

  1. The number of training sessions in a week cannot be standard. The strength training is only one part of complex training process. The athletes need to increase different parameters together and for this reason the number of training sessions in a week depend from the general strategy of training loads temporal organisation.

My vision of strength methods table for Olympic sport athletes is in the book “Special strength training: a practical manual for coaches”.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Squat Jump With Russian Kettlebell

Dear Emanuel Seitinger,

Traditionally, in the training finalized to develop the explosive strength of the legs there are two types of Squat Jump with overload: with barbell wheel on the shoulders and with Russian Kettlebell (RK) in the hands (suspended among the legs).

The difference among these two exercises is connected with two aspects of the Squat Jump with RK.

The Squat Jump with Russian Kettlebell assures:

  1. the most correct position of the back during exercise (it is easier to maintain the lumbar curve with the weight among the hands). This allows to athletes to perform the exercise with the most correct technique and to not damage the back during the landing: in the case of the jump with barbell wheel on the shoulders, the back inevitably suffers a blow.

  2. the partial relaxation of leg’s muscles at the moment in which RK touches the earth. This allows the athletes to perform the push aloft more powerful and accented.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Some Shock Guidelines

Dear Federico Manuel Ngomo,


Unfortunately it is impossible to propose a program of training personalized away internet without knowing well the athlete. The photos neither the data of the tests are not enough. Only the sensibility and the intuition of the trainer that follows you it allows to foresee the answers of your organism to the different types of load.

I tell you this as a trainer of experience and as a scientist.

All of my programs of training are not prescriptions, but only base models for a trainer whether to apply them must found on its professional intuition, acquired with the experience.


As ex trainer of jumpers I can tell you that with the height of the vertical jump of 120 cm you should already have a result in the long jump of 7.50 mt. So, I believe that to achieve to this result you don’t need more explosive strength but a more correct technique of the long jump. Therefore it is probable that to reach this result you don’t need to increase the height of the vertical jump, but you need a good expert that helps you to correct your technique of the long jump.


In any case, if you want to keep on improving your result in the vertical jump, the plan of training that you have described, according to me, it is not reasonable. I can suggest you to try one of the “Universal programs for development of the “jumping force” or the Program for sprinters present in my book “Special Strength Training: a practical manual for coaches “. In this case I must underline some important things.

  1. The use of Shock Method can bring big orthopaedic problems therefore it needs to use it with caution, especially if you have not strengthened before your body with weight exercises.

  2. The safeguard of the health is only an aspect of this problem. Generally, the Shock method can be introduced in the training process when the athlete already has got the effect of the other less invades methods of physical preparation: the use combined of the exercises with overload and of the traditional exercises of jump.

  3. You write that you don’t like the exercises with overload, it is probable that you have not used them in correct way. For instance, today in the training of the track and field athletes there is a tendency to use the specific complex exercises of the Olympic lifters. In my opinion, these exercises can be few “digestible” for you: it could be enough only the squat with some other “antigravitational” exercises and exercises for strengthening the back and the abdominal muscles.

Yuri Verkhoshansky
Dear Leo Kolerov,

first af all, I should advise that you choose a very power method and for this reason it should be used for the training of high level athletes with very high level of physical preparedness otherwise it could be dangerous for their integrity.

Your application of this supermethod seem to me right. You can elaborate more couples of these type of exercises corresponding with technical elements of judo. I named these portions of training session “training seanses”, they are not “training blocks”.

For their dosage (number of repetitions, number of series and sets) follow the general instructions of my article and also follow your professional intuition, i.e. your evaluation of the result of every exercise: it should not be too much worsen over the entire training section.

For your other questions, concerning the assembly of training seanses for legs and upper body and how many seanses you can perform during the same training session, I am not able to answer in general because it’s depend on the physical preparedness level and the training experience of athletes.

If the athlete never performed this kind of training you have to start with the minimal load: one seanse in training session per day, one for legs and one for upper body with two days rest.

If you see that the athlete is able to continue and the athlete doesn’t show evidence of high fatigue you can perform two seanses for the legs and two seanses for the upper body.

Always with your evaluation of athlete’s condition you can, after, start to perform these four seanses three times per week.

In general you can increase the number of seanses but they must not be performed in continuity every day, you should have at least one day of rest between them.

Yuri Verkhoshansky

Functional Training

Dear Matthew Bloom,

“Functional training has its origins in rehabilitation. Physical therapists developed exercises that mimicked what patients did at home or work in order to return to their lives or jobs after an injury or surgery” (Wikipedia).

As I understood, the application of FT in sport training is the something that can give to the sport training more specificity. But how?

“The performing exercises that mimic activities or specific skills is the most effective way to train, regardless of ones goal”. But, what is it “mimic”? This pathway seems to me too “naïf”.

The problem is much more complicate and there is nothing of really innovative in FT: this “bicycle” was already invented many years ago.

Since ‘70th, in sport training methodology was introduced the systemic approach, which permitted to study this problem from another point of view.

By this point of view, at the beginning of this approach it’s necessary to study the biomechanical and biodynamical characteristics of the competition exercises for the sport discipline of your interest.

After that, it’s necessary to understand what is the specific performance structure that can assure to execute competition exercise with the best result, and what are the physiologic parameters at the base of this specific performance structure.

The next step, it’s necessary to understand what kind of training means and methods (loads) could increase this parameters and how organise all this kind of loads in the training programs to obtain the best athlete’s condition at the competition time.

There are many researches dedicated to the problem of sport training specificity.

The rehabilitation’s approach it’s not the solution for this complex problem.

The physical training is used in different contexts: rehabilitation, Fitness and Wellness, physical education, amateur sport and Olympic sport.

All these activities have different finalizations and need different methodological approaches.

It’s a big error to forget it and try to introduce the rehabilitation methods in the sport training. It’s also a big error to transport the bodybuilding methodology in the Olympic sport training and use the innovative sport training methodology in Fitness and Physical Education.

Yuri Verkhoshansky