The Sport Form phenomenon

I am really glad to let you know that James Smith, my teacher prof. Vladimir Koprivica and myself started a small project about what is sport form and how it affect training and competition! There is going to be series of articles plus some interviews about the topic.
I would love to thank James for his efforts and his will to helps us! I hope everyone will learn something new from this project!
Here is the link of translated chapter from prof. Koprivica book about sport form at James website

Enjoy it! And be free to comment, curse, ask questions, whatever :slight_smile:

I’m looking forward to reading through this!! Thanks very much.

Is there any possibility to view a serbs version of that?

This cleared up a lot of what you mentionned from the other thread. Thanks for working on it.

Sorry tuco, but I translated right from the book! Do you have trouble reading on english?

No I haven’t I’m just a little bit more familiar with ser-cro language that’s all.

Are you from Serbia? The book can be purchased at my faculty in Belgrade. It is very very cheap…

Very good article Duxx. Thank you for taking the time to translate it. Some of the insights into team sports were very interesting because I hadn’t thought about some of these ideas before. It makes me wish I could read other languages apart from english.

Although most people seem to describe this kind of information as the “science” of training, I see it more as philosophy. How do people perform research into this kind of stuff? Do they attempt to use scientific experimental methodlogy?



No I’m from Slovenia. I will have look at our University bookstore if they possessed one.

Keep the question comming and write them down, because I will ask James to include them into interview and that will be in due course! Thanks for your interest tc

The article can be also downloaded from EliteFTS

I got the article last week,found it highly informative,and will be re-reading it several times.

Many thanks to you for a generous contribution to the literature.

TNX! I really appreciate your (and everybodys) feedback!

That’s really interesting- thanks. :cool:

Interesting article.

I’m posting my article from presentation in Honk Kong last year, February 2005 from ICCE Asian coaching conference. I call this phenomenon ‘athletic shape’, which, i think is similar to ‘sporting form’, discussed above.
Thank you.


Fundamentals of periodization at the big training cycles

 In a big training cycle (such as annual or semi-annual) there are, as usual, three periods: preparatory, competitive and transition. Initially, it was the competition calendar and climatic conditions that were thought to be reasons for the periodical changes in a training process. However, a thorough analysis has shown that neither these nor some other external factors determine the essence of training; these factors are not sufficient enough for explanation of periodization fundamentals. An important point to recognize is that, according to concept by the Soviet experts (Novikov A.D., Matveev L. P., Ozolin N. G., Farfel V. S.), the reasons for the cyclic alteration of training periods are, first of all the regularities of athletic shape development.

Athlete’s adaptation to training effects

 In a modern sport, performance improvement depends upon proper levels of physical, technical, psychological and tactical preparedness of the athlete. Different means and methods exist to achieve this high level of preparedness.
 It is widely accepted that adaptation is one of the main forms of the existence of living things. In essence this term refers to human being’s general biological ability to adapt to various external and internal stresses. The human being, interacting with nature, changes his own nature. We monitor this phenomenon in a sporting practice every day. Affecting the organism’s systems by a certain combination of training loads, we cause corresponding changes in a specific direction. Each adaptation process may lead to several purposeful changes both in the organism’s whole system and separate muscle groups. Through the adaptation processes the athlete’s body systems are balanced in external and internal environment. The organism exists while it can adapt to the surrounding environment (Pavlov I. P., 1924). As soon as this balance is broken the organism does not exist anymore. 
 The state of balance is achieved through adaptation, which goes on throughout the whole life. Thus, adaptation is necessary because humans cannot live without this process.
 In a sporting practice, adaptation processes occur as follows: in a given time period the coach suggests to athlete one or other combinations of training loads, to which an athlete adapts to after some time. In other words, the athlete changes his corresponding body systems (i.e., neuro-muscular system, respiratory system etc.), enhancing his functional abilities. Practically, sporting performances rise until the athlete’s body is adapting to a certain combination of training effects.
 Adaptation to certain training combinations ends when an athlete obtains so-called athletic shape. This means that the body has adapted (changed its functions) to given training loads. For further improvement of results it is necessary to reorganize the organism again. For that purpose, new and more efficient training means and methods have to be used in the training process.
 Each stage of sporting perfection suits its own stage of adaptation. One combination of training loads is good for one level of sporting performance, but is inefficient for different performance levels. The degree of training affecting athlete’s body systems has to increase with a higher level of athlete’s performance.
 Athletic shape and its criteria. Athletic shape is a state of optimal (best) readiness for sporting performance which is acquired under definite conditions in each big training cycle (annual, semi-annual) (Matveev L. P., 1977).The athletic shape as a whole represents harmonious unity of all components of the athlete’s optimal readiness: physical, psychological, technical, and tactical. We can say that an athlete is in a state of athletic shape only when all these components are present. No matter how high an athlete’s physical preparedness is and how perfect his technical and tactical skills are, he would not be able to demonstrate high performance in important competitions if the athlete does not have an adequate psychological preparedness. Therefore, athletic shape is characterized not only by the presence of various characteristics, but the harmonious ratio of the four parameters.
 It is important to appreciate that the term optimal readiness is relative, in a sense it is part of a process of sporting perfection: it is correct (true) for each given cycle of athletic shape development only. As the athlete improves results, this optimum changes – athletic shape becomes different in qualitative and quantitative aspects. 
 Real competition results are the main integral parameters of athletic shape. Only in sporting results we can see all aspects of the athlete’s readiness for high performance. However, results are a significant parameter of athletic shape only when they are demonstrated with a definite frequency in comparable conditions and are evaluated objectively. Selection of qualitative criteria of athletic shape has an important theoretical and practical meaning. In this regard, studies have shown that there are two groups of such criteria: progress criteria and stability criteria.
 Progress criteria characterize athletic shape by the degree of increment and absolute level of the athlete’s performance in a given big cycle of training. Parameters here, in particular, might be:

a) Differences between the personal best achieved in a previous big cycle of training (annual or semi-annual) and the examined performance in a current cycle. The more the latter is better than (exceeds) the previous cycle’s result, the greater the possibility that the athlete is in a state of athletic shape and vice versa. However, the athlete’s training record and his personal best results have to be considered. Athletes with a long training record (7 – 10 years) and an outstanding personal best result often have no increment in their performance level in a given big cycle of training. Repetition of the athlete’s personal best result, or a result close to personal best can be a conditional criterion of athletic shape (within 1 – 3% of personal best, depending of the specifics of the sport);
b) The difference between the considered result of a control competition and results of first competitions in a given big training cycle: the more the athlete exceeds his results shown in first competitions, the greater the possibility that the athlete is near a state of his athletic shape.
Following parameters can be considered as stability criteria:
a) The number of results demonstrated by an athlete within a so-called rated zone of athletic shape. The lower limit of this zone must not greatly deviate from the personal best result for the high class athlete. For example, in cyclic sporting events (excluding long distances) the lower limit of a zone of athletic shape is a result, which is about 98-98.5% of a personal best result; in acyclic sporting events, the zone is not less than 95-97% of a personal best result. In other words, if an athlete (fully mobilizing his forces and without unusual interferences) shows results below this level, it speaks that an athlete is not in a state of athletic shape (he/she is out of shape). However, if the athlete’s competition results are higher than a given level, that means he is in a state of athletic shape. Recent evidence suggests that high performance athletes manage to demonstrate up to 1/3 of all results within a given zone in the annual training cycle.
b) The average time interval between results in a rated zone of athletic shape (i. e., frequency of demonstration of results, which are not below a lower limit of a given zone). The more the athlete can demonstrate such results in a given big training cycle and the shorter the time interval between them, the stability of athletic shape is much higher.
c) The total duration of competitive period, during which sporting results with systematic participation in competitions do not drop below the level of the athletic shape zone.
These criteria are significant only if the athlete participates in competitions quite often. There are not informative if, for example, the athlete competes once a month; but they provide significant information if there are weekly competitions, which is typical for the competitive period of high performance athletes.
Since criteria of progress and the stability of athletic shape are characterized by different relations, the relationships between them are not uniform. The total number of competitions in a one big training cycle is usually correlated positively with the increment and absolute level of performance. However, the number of important competitions often has a negative correlation with these parameters. It is important to remember that the state of athletic shape can be determined only when all combination of criteria are used to evaluate separate characteristics of athlete’s preparedness along with specialized methods of functional control (medical, biological, psychological).


 Recent evidence suggests that the process of athletic shape development has some different phases called acquisition, retention (or relative stabilization) and temporary loss of athletic shape (fig. 1). 

 Figure 1. Athletic shape development (mono-cycle)

 Figure 2. Athletic shape development (bi-cycle) 

 The first phase is the phase of the formation and improvement of conditions that are the basis of the state of athletic shape, and the first phase concludes with an integral system of specific components. At this stage the general level of athlete’s body’s functional abilities are increased together with a multilateral development of his/her physical and mental qualities, and the formation and perfection of necessary motor skills. It seems reasonable to assume that performance levels due to athletic shape depend firstly on the quality of its foundation.

 Figure 3. Athletic shape development (tri-cycle)

 The second phase is characterized by relative stabilization of athletic shape as a system of components providing (ensuring) optimal readiness for sporting performances. Total restructuring of these components in a given phase is not possible, because this will lead to loss of athletic shape. However, with a process of athletic shape stabilization there is a further perfection of all those factors, which are important for high sporting performances. That is why results grow in limits, which the regularities of the given athletic shape allow. The variations of results at this stage of athletic shape are common (fig. 1, 2), that is because, on the one hand, the operative athlete’s readiness is expediently regulated at the stages of his preparation and participation at different levels, and, on the other hand, the body’s functional conditions periodically fluctuate at this particular stage. Such variations of results are not a sign of athletic shape loss (if, of course, their deterioration does not become a stable tendency).
 The third phase is distinguished by changes of direction in adaptational processes, in the body’s functional regime (rehabilitation, recuperation). Relationships and links, which acquired athletic shape and were stabilizing earlier, are now weakened or destroyed partially. However, it does not mean that fundamental functions of the athlete’s organism are violated. When athlete’s general life regime and training regime are organized rationally (properly), the temporary loss of athletic shape does not affect the athlete’s normal life activity.
 Some athletes and coaches might ask: why can’t an athlete be in a state of athletic shape permanently? In this regard, studies have shown that, firstly, athletic shape acquired at one or other stage of an athlete’s sporting career is a state optimal for this given stage. For the next higher stage, this state is no more optimal. The athlete’s desire to keep permanently a once acquired athletic shape would be similar to a desire to mark time. To advance, the athlete has to get rid of his old athletic shape and create conditions for the acquisition of a new athletic shape. This needs many more changes and improvements in all components of the athlete’s preparedness.
 Secondly, because of the prolonged effect of training and competitive loads, necessary for acquiring and stabilization of athletic shape, the body’s protective reaction is developed sooner or later to prevent overstraining of adaptation mechanisms. If a coach forgets about these factors, the same loads which led to athletic shape, would become stressors producing overtraining. 
 Thirdly, maintaining a complex dynamic balance between different biological functions and the processes guaranteeing athletic shape is already a hard task, especially the for athlete’s central nervous system (CNS). This task becomes even more difficult, because it has to be resolved in a process of continual change of the organism’s internal and external environment in the stressful conditions of sporting activity.
 Thus, maintaining athletic shape is fraught with difficulties of both external and internal character. They might become excessive and lead to unpredictable consequences if an athlete tries to retain athletic shape for too long. However, it is not necessary. On the

contrary, conservation of once acquired athletic shape would hinder the acquisition of a new athletic shape, i. e. it would be an obstacle to new performances.


 Many researchers studied the problem of the maintenance of athletic shape starting from the early 1930s. Different authors have various recommendations. Some authors advocate that it is necessary to increase the duration of the preparatory period between 2 to 6-7 months, because stability of adaptational changes depends upon both usage of a concrete combination of training loads and the length of their effects.
 Former Soviet specialists designed so-called ‘Principle of Pendulum’ (PP) for the distribution of training loads during the final (precompetitive) stage of preparation for the main competitions (Arosiev D. A.). The Principle of Pendulum suggests the systematic alteration of two types of training microcycles – model-competitive and contrasting. The main aim of model-competitive microcycles is direct preparation for a main competition; and the aim of contrasting microcycles is compensation and supercompensation after competition. More specific exercises are used in the first type of microcycle; and less specialized and less intensive exercises in latter type of microcycles. In addition to model-competitive and contrasting microcycles there are so-called intermediate – developmental and maintenance microcycles. Thus, alteration of training means helps to maintain the athlete’s athletic shape. In this regard, five different models of training have been studied at the retention phase of athletic shape (Bondarchuk A. P., 1991):
  1. Maintenance of the same volume and intensity of training loads using the same training means.

  2. Maintenance of volume with growth of intensity.

  3. Lowering the volume (up to 50%) with growth of intensity.

  4. Growth of volume (up to 50%) and intensity of training.

  5. Change of training means (50%) and methods. Training intensity in models 2, 3 and 4 rose by 50%.
    Changes made to the training combination applied before the second acquisition of athletic shape helps to maintain the present level of athletic shape between 1 to 3 months; then the athlete loses the state of athletic shape. The duration of athletic shape retention in

    Figure 5. Principle of Pendulum at the precompetitive phase of preparation

most cases do not exceed 2 months. Only in a few cases this period is either slightly shorter (1 month) or slightly longer (3 months). With the end of this period, the athlete has to change his training means, if there is an aim of further maintenance of athletic shape. Optimal duration of athletic shape retention for all athletes is 4 weeks. In one study, done by Bondarchuk, one of the experimental groups has been changing the combination of training means every 3-4 weeks. In this experiment, athletes could be in a state of athletic shape for as long as 5 months.
Athletes’ individual characteristics in a process of athletic shape retention differ not only by duration of period of retention, but by direction of the fluctuations of sporting performance. Thus, in the first two weeks, one group of athletes improved their results after changes in a combination of training loads. In the next two weeks the tempo of improvement slightly decreased compared to the first two weeks (but results were still in the 3% zone of retention). In a second group of athletes the opposite trend of the results were observed: in the first two weeks results were slightly lower; and in the following weeks improvement by several percent were observed. It seems reasonable to assume that there might be some other reactions of the athlete’s body systems to changes in combinations of training loads (i. e., certain dynamics of sporting results).
Athletic shape maintenance becomes possible because of adaptational changes in the corresponding system of the body. It seems likely that the body, after a given time interval, receives new stimuli for further functioning in accordance with new external conditions. Active rest becomes very important for the recovery processes. Thus, active rest assists in athletic shape maintenance.


 As mentioned previously, there are three phases of athletic shape development: acquisition, retention and temporary loss.
 The loss of athletic shape can be either of long term or of short term duration. The long term loss of athletic shape is observed in two cases:

a) When an athlete is in a state of athletic shape and continues using the same combination of training means;
b) When an athlete excludes one or the other exercise from a training process for a certain time (from one to several months) during periods of either acquisition or retention of athletic shape.
The loss of athletic shape in most cases is experienced by athletes after the transition period. At this time, results usually decrease by 5-10% (sometimes even more) compared to previous annual cycle results.
The short term loss of athletic shape can be observed in the second period of athletic shape development. The duration of the loss varies from 2 to 8 weeks. The short term reduction of performance levels during periods of athletic shape development after active or passive rest cannot be considered as a loss of athletic shape. This phenomenon is a part of the process of athletic shape development (adaptation processes to training loads is a basis of athletic shape development).


 As previously stated, the time needed for certain athletes to obtain a state of athletic shape varies from one individual to another. From one perspective, it depends upon the functionality of individual characteristics of the athlete’s body systems; and, from the other side, it depends on incoming training effects and other factors. 
 It should be pointed out that the duration of acquisition of athletic shape depends on an athlete’s age. Thus, at the age of 20-30 years this period is normally 2 – 8 months. When an athlete becomes older (older than 30) period of athletic shape acquisition extends. The longer duration of acquisition of athletic shape happens because mechanisms of body systems’ functioning change. This concerns not only CNS, but other systems as well (i.e., yielding of conditioned reflexes, chemical structure of the brain, etc.).
 The duration of athletic shape development is increased with frequent alteration of training means, if a period of athletic shape acquisition starts after either active or passive rest. 
 In some cases, periods of athletic shape acquisition might be longer when athletes use high volume training loads. These periods increase too when there are interruptions between training lessons, and micro and mezocycles of training (i.e., athlete’s bad health condition). 
 The time duration of preliminary general training (without usage of competitive exercise) does not affect (influence) the duration of athletic shape acquisition. The same is correct in the case of simple and complex coordinational exercises.


 The basic natural requirement for the periodization of training process is the phase character or athletic shape development. Acquiring, stabilization and temporary loss of athletic shape is a result of strictly defined training effects. The character of these effects regularly changes depending on phase of athletic shape development. There are three periods, which alternate in training: 

a) Preparatory period. During this period the foundation of athletic shape is formed;
b) Competitive period. During competitive period athletic shape has to be stabilized, retained and realized in sporting performances;
c) Transition period, which helps an athlete to regenerate the body’s adaptation abilities and guarantee continuity between the two stages of athlete’s training process.
It seems reasonable to assume that these periods are actually consecutive stages of controlling and managing the development of athletic shape (Matveev L. P., 1997). Objective possibilities allow manipulating the phases of its development, appropriately shortening or lengthening them. Naturally, any coach or athlete cannot limitlessly lengthen or shorten these phases, because, in general, their durations are determined by internal regularities of organism’s development and depend on a number of specific conditions (athlete’s basic preparedness level; his individual abilities; specifics of sports; competition calendar etc.). The preparatory period, for example, cannot be shorter than it is necessary in given conditions for athletic shape acquirement. The competitive period must not be longer than what is allowed by the possibility of maintaining athletic shape. The length of transition period depends, first of all, upon total volume of preceding loads and a time necessary for the body’s full rehabilitation.
The total duration of a big training cycle is often near to one year period. It is widely accepted that this time (one year) in many cases is quite enough for the development of athletic shape. However, in a number of sports (mainly in power or speed-strength dominated sports) the athletic shape can be renewed in the annual as well as in the semiannual cycles. Cycles, longer than annual, might be, in some cases, expedient, but needs more investigation.
To summarize, the following periods of such cycles can be pointed out:
Preparatory period – from 3 – 4 months (in semiannual cycles) to 5 – 7 months (in annual cycles);
Competitive period – from 1.5 – 2 months to 4 – 5 months;
Transition period – from 3 – 4 to 6 weeks.
Rational duration of periods can be chosen within these limits in various sports and for the athletes with different qualities. The difference in the duration of the period depends upon the differences in the athletes’ basic preparedness, as well as in training loads and in the peculiarities of the chosen sport or event.

Tnx abo! I will print it and read it… Tnx!