Training like this already exists in the world of olympic lifting. It’s not unusual at all to do heavy cleans (say, 85%+) one day and come back the next day and do cleans again - or a variation- with under 60% weight…
Weightlifters also routinely squat on consecutive days as well. While 30% might be a low number, it can certainly work.
If you’re not a weightlifter, you can simply to the old fashioned “heavy/light” split, and put your lighter squats a little later in the week, after resting a day or two from squating.
In the world of “Westside” training, a standard template for training includes a “max effort” day like you describe, and a “dynamic effort” day using percentages like those you described. When you introduce timed rest intervals, and play with things a bit, in my opinion it could easily resemble a “tempo” workout if that’s your goal…
Of course, you need to ask yourself why you are looking to do a workout like this in the first place, and see where that takes you!
In the same way that a tractor could easily resemble a Ferrari if you change it enough. WSB’s DE days are in no way similar to tempo.
But some lifters have reported success with just what was suggested, going back the next day with very light weight. This is somewhat similar to the sled dragging done at Westside, which has several purposes, one of them recovery.
I imagine that 3 -4 sets of 6-10 reps with 30-50% could work for recovery, form, efficiency and just keeping loose.
I’m too cooked the day after squats to do anything like this and a lot of people report the same, but if you feel you can it might be worth trying.