To put precise percentages on a ‘range’ it’s somewhat stereotypical and dependent upon the structure of the activity; however, in my experience, maximal weights in the power lifts may be viewed as those in excess of 80% and in the Olympic lifts closer to 90%.

The reality is that the greater the force component, the lower the percentage need be to qualify has maximal and the greater the velocity component the greater the percentage must be to qualify as maximal. It is for this reason why maximal sprint training/maxV is +95%, also high for the throws and jumps in T&F, down to 90% or so for Olympic lifts and further on down for powerlifts

The development of maximal strength in the squat, bench, deadlift, for example, is optimally done with sub-max weights and a relatively small volume of maximal percentage lifting is required to provide the stimulus to realize the true maximum of strength. In this way, the lifts made in the maximal zone serve to develop the coordination necessary to handle maximal attempts with efficiency.

The maximum is irrelevant for athletes other than powerlifters, weightlifters, and strongman, however. All other athletes only need varying degrees of strength development and strength is developed with sub-maximal loading. Leave the realization of maximal strength to those whose sport is characterized by overcoming maximal external overload.

If the bench press, for example, was 315x5 then became 315x7 we know that strength has improved and there’s no need to test the 1RM.

There’s more leeway for certain lifts that do not interfere with the competition exercises. This is why Charlie would be more liberal with bench press. Note, however, that the squat weights, while ‘heavy’ were clearly no where near the sprinters 1RM potential and were, in fact, kept sub-max by design and the bench (regarding it’s use as a re-stim a few days before the meet), while performed closer to the maximum, would have been irrelevant if the sprinter wasn’t strong enough to generate a sufficient enough output on the exercise in the first place.