Fighting to keep my arms close to the torso ?

I know that it is best to keep the arms close and pumping during any sprint, and that straight angles are best.

What are the things that may contribute to messed up arm movement (elbow almost 100% flexed on forward arm, arms turning outwards on the start, hands coming in… etc)

Tight delts, rotator cuffs… ?Chest… Biceps…
Which causes what “syndrome” ?

Hope you understand the question,

Have a great day !

Lack of relaxation and not swinging from the shoulders are what cause most of the problems.

What about structural issues ?
Can tight pecs and biceps mess up your arm movement “sharpness” ?

Sure, it is excessive. Most people don’t have such tight pecs and biceps that it limits the ROM needed for sprinting though. As with everything, you should be incorporating regular flexibility/mobility work if not only for health in these areas.

Its amazing on how many people i come across with tight shoulders.
Foam rolling my friend - just use a ball to do it.