Research Paper help

Can anyone help me get these papers?

I can’t get access to the Candian Journal of Applied Physiology

Can J Appl Physiol. 1997 Aug;22(4):307-27.
Human skeletal muscle fiber types: delineation, development, and distribution.
Staron RS.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens 45701, USA.

Or even these …

Int J Sports Med. 2003 Apr;24(3):203-7.

Fiber type characteristics and myosin light chain expression in a world champion shot putter.

Billeter R, Jostarndt-Fögen K, Günthör W, Hoppeler H.
Department of Anatomy, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis of two world class shot putters (shot putter 1 and 2) and the untrained brother of shot putter 1 were analyzed for fiber type distribution with ATPase staining and in situ hybridization for the expression of alkali myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms. Shot putter 2 had a predominance of type II fibers (67 X) and distinct hypertrophy of type I as well as type II fibers (fiber areas of 5939 and 8531 microm2). In shot putter 1, type II fibers amounted to only 40%, due to their selective hypertrophy, however type II fibers (10265 microm2) accounted for 67 2% of the total cross-sectional area. The type I fibers in shot putter 1 were similar in size to his untrained brother (3430 vs 3790 microm2). After 3 years of active detraining, type II fibers of shot putter 1 had reduced in size to values closer to those of his brother (7746 and 6340 microm2). The large difference between type I and type II fiber size, even in the untrained state, in both shot putter 1 and his brother is not usually seen in humans and maybe a genetic characteristic. We suggest that the ability to selectively increase the relative area of his type II fibers in the 15 years of strength training was a key element in his success as a shot putter. The observed increase in the expression of fast myosin light chain mRNAs in both fiber types is indicative of further adjustment of the myofibrillar apparatus towards the generation of very high peak power.

PMID: 12740740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Clin Neuropathol. 1996 Mar-Apr;15(2):116-8.

Size and proportion of fiber types in human muscle fascicles.

Manta P, Kalfakis N, Kararizou E, Vassilopoulos D, Papageorgiou C.
Department of Neurology, University of Athens, Eginition Hospital, Greece.

Size and distribution of 2 histochemical types of muscle fibers within the human muscle fascicle were investigated. Cryostat sections (ATPase, pH 9.4) were studied from 15 quadriceps femoris, 15 biceps brachii and 15 deltoid muscles taken at autopsy from 12 males and 9 females who had no history of neuromuscular disease. The number and the lesser diameter of type 1 and type 2 fibers were counted and percentage and mean diameter of the 2 types of fibers were calculated separately for periphery and interior of randomly selected fascicles. The results showed that a progressive age-related reduction of the diameter of type 2 fibers is observed and the predominance of type 2 fibers in the periphery is a constant finding in all muscles studied, regardless of sex and age.

PMID: 8925596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Physiol Res. 1994;43(4):233-41.

Relationship of muscle fibre distribution to body composition in physically trained and normally active human males.

Melichna J, Parízková J, Zauner CW, Havlícková L.
Department of Physiology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

This study was designed primarily to identify relationships among indices of muscle tissue structure (m. vastus lateralis) and of somatic qualities (anthropometric parameters) in 44 untrained men and 105 well-trained athletes. The ratio of glycolytic to oxidative muscle fibres was significantly less (P < 0.05) in endurance athletes as opposed to both the controls and the power athletes. Correlations between anthropometric factors and indices of muscle morphology were stronger in trained men, particularly in power athletes. Relationships between body fat and muscle fibre distribution were low in trained and untrained subjects. Documented muscle plasticity may enhance relationships between somatic and muscle tissue indices. Our results suggest that the response of the three major muscle fibre types to prolonged training may be relatively high. Finally, it was proposed that enhanced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle might be characteristic of those resistant to heart disease.

PMID: 7841170 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Neurol Sci. 1973 Jan;18(1):111-29.

Data on the distribution of fibre types in thirty-six human muscles. An autopsy study.

Johnson MA, Polgar J, Weightman D, Appleton D.
PMID: 4120482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Muscle Nerve. 1986 Jan;9(1):30-6.

Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: why is there a difference within a fascicle?

Sjöström M, Downham DY, Lexell J.

The proportions of different fiber types (type 1 and type 2) on the borders of fascicles are shown to differ from the proportions internally. This finding is based on the analysis of a total of 245 fascicles from whole cross-sections of the vastus lateralis muscle from 13 men, aged from 26-80 years. Generally, the difference is more marked in the young than in the old. It is argued that the causes of this difference are likely to be local factors in the muscle.


Check your email: the Billiter and Sjöström papers are in there. I’ll be up at the university finishing my thesis. If I have time, I’ll try to scan you in the CJAP paper. Sorry, but I don’t have access to any of the others.

This is actually a pretty cool set up for a study. Two shot putters who trained together following the same same training protocol for 5 years with all of the training volumes logged. Shotputter 1 is world champion and Olympic medalist W. Gunthor. Shot putter 2 is his training partner with a best of throw of 21.01 m. Brother of W. Gunthor is included in the study.

The two brothers are genetically different from the general population - with a predisposition to selectively hypertrophy type II muscle fibres, and in addition also selectively express the fast myosin light chain in both types of fibres, especially in the Type I fibres, which is a little unusual. (Although the MHC is the primary mechanism for the production of muscle shortening velocity, the MLC is thought to augment this and ‘refine’ and increase the contraction speed. This could theoretically move the type I muscle fibres to behaving a little more like a type II fibre).

The authors make a bit of a leap by automatically linking the expressed athletic ability shown by Gunthor as compared to his his partner solely to the genetic differences, but fail to take into account other factors (ie. muscle attachment/leverages; technique). It would have been really interesting if the had included some measures of power (although the other factors would once again come into play). It would also be interesting to see if many other world class athletes express the same qualities -and it would also help to validate their findings.

Regardless, there findings do have some merit, and the study - if their supposition is true - would have some very interesting implications for the limits of genetic ability, and well as for the potential possibility of genetically selecting athletes in the athletic development process from a young age (although the thought of ‘sport nut’ parents having thousands of young athletes jabbed with biopsy needles is both painful and a little repulsive :stuck_out_tongue: )

Interesting side fact: Gunthor’s training volumes were logged for 15 years, and it was estimated that his training volume exceeded 500,000 tons