Nutrition classwork

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Cheddar cheese is an example of plant protein??? Does it grow on a cheddar tree or a cheddar bush? Maybe it is a root plant? I was born and raised in Wisconsin. I know where cheddar cheese comes from…CHEESEHEADS!


I’m in kind of a hurry and just skimmed parts, but something that stands out is poor language usage/writing at times. No GLARING errors, but poor comma use, awkward/incorrect phrasing (such as "being that . . . "), etc.

I’d suggest having someone edit it for language/grammar/etc as well as content.

Oh, and it’s “Saturated” fat, not “saturating”.


Lol i know i need to seriously go over the writing style lol.

@ tnt yes that was a major error and I had already edited it just after posting this but I had to go out.

Keep going…

Functions and common sources of the 6 main nutrients

Carbohydrates are separated into two different groups by the glycemic index (GI). Carbohydrates that are high up on the GI are simple (sugar) carbohydrates while carbohydrates that are low down the GI are complex (starchy) carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are metabolized faster meaning the energy release is shorter. Complex carbohydrates release energy slowly at a sustained rate.

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose by your digestive system. Glucose, a simple sugar, is broken down into water and carbon dioxide. However all glucose which goes unused is turned into glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles. The problem being is our body can only store so much glycogen meaning excess is stored as fat!

Remember carbohydrates are your main energy source. As an athlete these should be the largest portion on your plate pre and post workout! Post workout carbohydrate consumption also helps replenish glycogen stores meaning recovery time is shortened.

Protein is essential for repair and growth of muscle. Protein is made up of amino acids. There are essential amino acids which must be obtained from food. Then there are non-essential amino acids which can be synthesised by our body from nitrogen, carbohydrates and fat.

Remember to consume around 1.5g of protein per kg of your bodyweight. Also a great source of animal protein is turkey which contains 28.8g of protein per 100g portion. A great source of plant protein is red kidney beans which contains 22.1g of protein per 100g portion.

Fat, also known as lipids are separated into two groups - soluble and non soluble. Without soluble fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K can’t be stored. If you lack these vitamins you will suffer from unhealthy eyes, vision, skin and bones, a poor immune system and the poor ability to clot blood.

Lipids are also used as an excess energy source. When your glycogen stores are depleted the body uses fat as its primary energy source.

Cholesterol is an essential fat stored in the cells, body and hormones. It is mainly made in the liver from saturated fats. However cholesterol problems will not occur if you are regularly active while making sure fats make up no more than 30% of your total caloric intake.

Take note that 1g of fat is the equivalent to 9 calories! This is double the amount of calories for protein and carbohydrates! (View importance of healthy diet for more information)

Minerals: There are 10 minerals that are essential to your diet - calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc!

These elements are critical for the body to perform its normal functions.

Vitamins: There are 11 vitamins that are essential to your diet - Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, D, E, K and folic acid.

Fat and water soluble vitamins are essential to lots of chemical processes in the body.

Fibre, also known as roughage, is resistant to the body’s digestive enzymes. They are split into two groups - soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fibre is insoluble. It is flushed through the digestive system and its acids are used to eliminate waste. It also prevents the build up of toxins in the digestive system. Soluble fibre is dissolved during the digestive process and can be used by the major organs at anytime.

Most whole grain foods are a great source of fibre! Don’t forget to read the label, brown food may have been dyed brown and not contain the essential nutrients you once thought!

Fluid is essential; nearly every cell in your body needs water to function.

“1% dehydration can lead to a 10% decrease in physical performance. Apply that to a 13.1 miles and the average runner might run 15 minutes slower than they are able to.” - Susan Jones

Dehydration is a cause of poor performance, fatigue, decrease co ordination and muscle cramping due to loss of electrolytes!

Consume 2 cups of water 2 hours prior to training; while at training consume water every 15 minutes. But as we will be training for 2 hours you may all benefit from drinking a sports drink containing carbohydrate. The sports drink should contain no more than 5% concentration though!

However on none training days try to consume at least 8 cups of water a day to keep the body hydrated. After all we are made up from around 65% water!

The importance of food labelling!

Looking at food labels helps you to locate all the useful information on the products nutrients. You can tell if a food has the desired level of saturating fat, fibre and many other essential nutrients! The information on labels is easy to read meaning you won’t have to rely on a nutritionist to select your food for you to meet the desired demands. The main benefit of this is they have to tell you what is in the food so there is no false advertising!

Importance of a healthy diet!

A healthy diet is important in prevention of many diseases such as heart disease and diabetes! A healthy diet can also help you to maintain a desired bodyweight and help general well being.

Helpful hint: No one food can provide all the essential nutrients. It is important to eat a variety of food to obtain the adequate vitamins and minerals.

Energy Levels

Our activities are powered by energy generated by processing food and the oxygen we breathe.

Calories are the energy provided from food. Every person requires a different amount of energy thus meaning each person’s caloric intake will be different. Many things affect energy needs such as age, height, gender, activity levels and body size.

As you are all athletes aged 15-16 and will be exercising for 2 hours 4 times a week you will need to maintain around a 2,800 - 3,200 calorie diet. When planning out your diet you should manage carbohydrates:fats:proteins to around 55:30:15 %

Carbohydrate = 4kcal, Fats = 9kcal, protein = 4kcal.

Mental alertness and improved performance

Possibly the best way to boost brainpower is by playing sport. If you are consuming the correct amount of calories by following a diet specific to you and your energy needs then during exercise your performance will be improved due to improved functioning of the lungs and heart, increasing oxygen cells to the brain.

Nerve cells may also be improved due to co ordination and mental agility required by basketball. Your central nervous system will become more efficient increasing physical ability.

Food Groups

There are 6 major food groups;
Meat and beans

Grains consist of any food produced from barley, rice, oats, wheat and other cereal grains. There are two types of grains, refined grains and whole grains. An example of a refined grain is regular pasta. While an example of a whole grain is whole wheat pasta.

The main downfall of refined grains is that many necessary b vitamins, iron and dietary fibre have been removed during the milling process. Iron and b vitamins are added back after processing however fibre is not (see page 1 for fibre).

Grains are an important source of dietary fibre, minerals and many b vitamins.

Milk contains calcium, protein, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, sodium, vitamins D and A, lactose and riboflavin.
Milk comes in three basic types; whole milk, low fat milk and non fat/skimmed milk. Non fat milk just contains less fat than the other two forms yet is still highly nutritious.

Food products created from milk fall into this group. They are known as dairy products.

Remember to select low fat to non fat dairy products.

Fruits provide nutrients that are critical for health maintenance and bodily functions. Essential nutrients fruit provide are vitamin C, folic acid, potassium and dietary fibre. Fruits are generally low in fat and calories.

Remember eat at least 5 pieces of fruit a day!

Vegetables are placed in 5 main groups; orange vegetables, dry beans and peas, starchy vegetables, dark green vegetables and other vegetables. Like fruits vegetables provide essential nutrients critical for bodily functions. Low in fat and high in vitamin A, C and E, potassium and dietary fibre.

Remember eat at least 5 different vegetables a day!

Meat and beans are essential but foods in high fat and cholesterol need to be avoided! Meat and beans provide protein, essential for bodily repair (see section “protein”). They also provide vitamin E and B, magnesium and zinc.

Remember to avoid meats and beans high in fat and cholesterol!

Oils are basically fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils are obtained from plants and fish. It is important to consume oil as it is one of the only ways to obtain essential fatty acids.

Fish is a great source of oils!

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) were established to advise humans on the correct nutritional needs to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Body Composition

Body Composition is the lean tissues of different components that make up a person’s body weight.

Body Composition In basketball

The success of an athlete can often fall down onto their body composition. If you do not have the correct body composition to play your position then you are at a disadvantage before even starting the game. Generally though the less fat the greater the performance. The optimal average body fat for male basketball players is 8-9%.

There are currently no weight restrictions in any professional basketball leagues. However for example if you play in the post size does help. When I refer to size I mean a large amount lean body mass not fat mass.

But body composition varies from sport to sport. For example a sumo wrestler may have a 20% body fat and be seen as obese (over over fat) on a average health chart but is however suited perfectly for his sport.

Energy Balance

The difference between calories consumed and the number of calories burnt. For example; Calories consumed (3200) + calories burned (3200) = weight maintained (energy balanced). A positive energy balance would be to consume more calories than you burn. However a negative energy balance is to burn more than you consume.

Energy balance is easily changed to maintain needs by altering exercise levels and calorie consumption.