competition for adaptation

I train for cycling. One thing that I have always wondered is how the body makes choices as to how it will adapt to changing demands in adaptation. As a example a common in season approach to training is to shift training from sprints to high intensity intervals then endurance training all during that same week say tuesday/wednesday/thursday and then compete on the weekend.

Is it possible to make different adaptations concurrently or do they somehow cancel eachother out?